One of the most important life processes for every adult is sleep. A good night’s rest on a comfortable surface is vital for survival and effective living. The recommended hours of sleep for an adult ranges from seven (7) to nine (9) hours every day with six (6) hours being the permissible minimum. Adults are advised to keep to this time in order to give the body enough time to rest and revitalize after seventeen hours of stretched-out activities without catching a break. Enough sleep is mandatory for healthy living. Sleep deprivation ensues when an individual is not receiving the recommended adequate amount of sleep. This is a severe condition with several risk factors and effects, especially on the brain. However, before examining thoroughly the effects of sleep deprivation on the brain, let’s consider the following reasons why sleep is important;
Importance Of Sleep
The revitalization of Body Cellular Functions
During the day, our body cells are active and working tirelessly to maintain body cellular functions without a break. Therefore like machines are privy to break down after tireless work, so is the human body system. In order to revitalize the body and promote restoration of body cells and tissues including the muscles. When humans sleep, their muscles repair themselves, with organs and cells working to revitalize and heal for proper functionality when awake and active.
Conservation of Energy
The body utilizes ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) the energy currency of the cell during active hours. Without a break, there will be a continuous depletion of the body’s energy and most of the body’s energy will be redirected towards repair activities and conservation.
Regulate Brain Function
The brain functions to control different bodily actions. Thinking and work keep the brain active during the day and at night, the brain has time to relax from external stress when we sleep. Contrary to what most individuals think, the brain is active even while asleep. Sleeping aids to regulate brain function. There is active communication with neurons and toxins are removed from the brain during sleep.
Effects Of Sleep On The Brain
Sleep is important for a number of reasons as discussed earlier. Without sleep, the brain components would not act properly and will affect many bodily functions. Obesity and depression are only but a few adverse effects of not sleeping as it affects specific brain function relating to the body system processes. There are different causes of sleep deprivation including sleep orders (restless leg syndrome, narcolepsy, and sleep apnea), chronic illnesses (cancer, stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, and schizophrenia) and these could lead to a variety of long-term effects. Here are the outlined effects of sleep on the brain;
Impairment of Brain Function
During sleep as mentioned previously, the brain cells, chemicals, and components all stay active to remove toxins, conserve energy and revitalize the body functions. If sleep is deprived and the brain doesn’t get the chance to perform these functions, there could be an impairment in the activities carried out while awake. It has been researched and observed that without adequate sleep, the development of poor memory, bad focus, and inability to pay proper attention will occur. The mental capacity of the brain will be subject to depletion in capabilities without sleep. Sleep deprivation reduces attention span and ability to think properly.
Reduction of Immunity
Loss of sleep will affect immunity and subject the body and brain to reduced immunity. The brain and the immune system are closely related to the manner in which they act. The shared signals between the immune system and brain through the nerve endings, neurotransmitters, and modulators aids the immune system to release chemicals that will boost the body’s defense. The brain cycle following the circadian clock follows through affecting the immune system in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines that’ll improve the defense against foreign bodies. Sleep deprivation will affect this neuroimmune response. The body and brain will be vulnerable to infection without adequate sleep.
Without sleep, it has been discovered that the connection between the prefrontal cortex and the brain’s emotional processing centers will be disrupted. A disruption in this process will lead to impairment and an increase in emotions. This leads to hypersensitivity that affects the way a sleep-deprived person will react. Without sleep, individuals become more irrational, sensitive, and highly irritable. Without adequate sleep, the functionality of the brain is affected including the components responsible for the control of human emotions. The neurons are unable to function properly creating an easy pathway for a reduction in cognitive abilities.
Increased Risk of Obesity and Eating Disorders Due To Disruption in Hormone Production
There is a risk of obesity when sleep deprivation is introduced. Studies have shown that without sleep the production of hormones that regulate hunger and satisfaction are disrupted. Without adequate sleep Ghrelin which is responsible for the regulation of hunger, rises while leptin responsible for satisfaction reduces. As the feeling of hunger increases, the body’s natural reaction is to source more food which over time will lead to obesity and sleep disorders.
Insomnia disrupts brain function and increases the risk of depression. There are studies which have linked lack of sleep to depression in individuals. In fact, to treat depression, adequate sleep is always prescribed. The impairment in brain function caused by lack of sleep, there will be instability in the emotions of the individual causing erratic behavior and depression in some cases.
In time, if sleep deprivation continues, the value of life will continue to reduce drastically and death is in fact, imminent. The body is a system that must be managed and although it seems like a wasteful activity, adequate sleep is necessary. Without sleep, the brain will lead the immune system, the heart, the metabolic system, and a myriad of other bodily systems to misbehave. Staying healthy is keeping the brain healthy and sleeping is a necessity. Sleep deprivation could lead to death if left untreated. Stay in good health with proper sleep at the right time, with the right specified hours.
There are many people who are curious about the Cuban healthcare system. Many people feel that the Cuban healthcare system is one of Fidel Castro’s greatest achievements. Because of the socialist ideology of Cuba healthcare is considered to be a fundamental right which should be available at all times to all citizens. Cuban healthcare focuses on a preventative approach as far as healthcare is concerned. Absolutely all kinds of healthcare are free of charge. This includes all medicines, dental care and even doctors doing home visits are covered by the Cuban healthcare system. Cuban healthcare authorities have all of the required statistics to show how effective this system is. As far as infant mortality rates are concerned there are 4.2 deaths per 1000 births while in the UK there are 3.5 deaths per 1000 births. In Cuba the life expectancies among males is 77 years and among women it is 81 while life expectancies in the UK is 79 and 83 respectively.
Best doctor-patient ratio
In Cuba there is one doctor for every 150 patients. This is significantly better than in any other developed country. In the UK there are 2.8 doctors for every 1000 patients. This is why it does not come as a surprise that the Secretary-General of the UN points to the Cuban healthcare system as a model which should be followed by other countries. Foreigners who have spent time in the Cuban healthcare environment have seen for themselves the many positives and negatives relating to the Cuban healthcare service. Many of them are therefore able to confirm the available statistics. Even among US citizens they are respect for how much Cuba has been able to accomplish when they themselves seem to have so little compared to other developed countries. US citizens are especially impressed by the humility and the professionalism which can be seen among Cuban healthcare workers. Even though Cuban doctors do not earn much and they are often overwhelmed because so many of their colleagues had been sent to African countries in order to assist in healthcare missions they still persist with their endeavors.
Accomplishing the impossible
It is frequently see how Cuban healthcare workers maintain a high standard of service even when they do not have access to sophisticated diagnostic technology. It often happens that you have to wait long periods of time for basic equipment to arrive before they can proceed with procedures. Sometimes there is no running water and no electricity but still healthcare workers find a way to overcome those obstacles and they still manage to deliver a high standard of healthcare. Many Cuban doctors maintain that healthcare is about the need to help others and not so much about personal welfare. Even though this is a concept which is taught in most medical schools it is not something which is seen in actual practice. However, Cuban doctors are the exception. According to statistics the healthcare for a single Cuban is between 300 and $400 per year.
It is widely accepted that orthopedic surgeons in Cuba are today offering some of the very best Orthopedic Surgical Programs in the world. Because of their extensive training Orthopedic surgeons are able to use both nonsurgical and surgical means to treat a whole range of injuries and other healthcare problems. A long list of orthopedic services is now provided by orthopedic surgeons in Cuba. This include Orthopedic trauma, sports injuries, ankle surgery, foot surgery, pediatric surgery, reconstruction of joints, elbow and hand surgery, spinal surgery, shoulder replacement as well as knee and hip replacement.
Many health professionals continue to be amazed about the fact that Cuba has been experiencing extreme problems for the last six decades because of US economic sanctions. Nevertheless, it still has one of the best health systems in the entire world. In fact, it continues to deliver a higher standard of healthcare than many other developed countries including the US. This is because of the commitment of Cuba to prevent health problems. There is also community oriented primary health care available everywhere. It is an ongoing struggle for healthcare providers to maintain their high standard because of shortages in medicine. It still continues to improve its national healthcare. Another interesting statistic is the fact that Cuba spent 23% of the national budget on healthcare. A further 50% is spent on education which is almost double as much which is allocated for education and healthcare in the US.
Pharmaceutical companies in Cuba
Cuba has its own state owned pharmaceutical industry. One of the priorities of this industry has been the production of treatments which can be used for Covid 19. It also produces another 21 products which are being used to combat the virus. Many healthcare providers all across the planet are in agreement that the success of the Cuban health system is an example to the rest of the world. As far as education is concerned Cuba has the world’s largest medical schools. A perfect example is the Havana Latin American School of Medicine. This institution has provided free education to over 35,000 students from 138 countries in only 20 years. Students coming to these medical schools will receive full tuition and this will include accommodation, textbooks, meals and even a small income. All of the students are encouraged to provide their services to poor communities. This has the result that Cuba currently have over 50,000 doctors which is active in more than 60 countries which is substantially more than the current efforts by other developed countries. The inescapable reality is that this tiny island nation which have encountered so many obstacles over many decades have still managed to improve the lives of so many people.
It seems in many countries the original concept of what it means to be a doctor has been lost. This is not the case as far as Cuba is concerned. In this country there is a persistent attempt to reverse the trend seen in other developed nations where patients are increasingly viewed as customers and clients while healthcare provider is becoming service providers. There are so many problems as far as healthcare is concerned all across the planet. There is the current corona virus pandemic and in many places there are difficulty when it comes to access to healthcare. In many places healthcare systems are collapsing especially at a time when such services are critically needed. The sad reality is that despite many sophisticated technologies constantly emerging and also the success of medical science we currently see a situation where it seems we have so many problems when it comes to caring for our own.
An army in disarray
There are long list of problems all across the planet which continues to prevent countries from providing optimum healthcare for all of their citizens. It seems there are simply not enough health workers and those which are available are not properly trained or they have not been properly distributed. The result is that there are many health systems that simply do not have sufficient personnel. This is especially true in developing countries. It is frequently seen that health systems do not have enough personnel; there are simply not proper leadership and effective organization. Although it is certainly true that Third World countries experience the most problems it is also true that there are many affluent nations where there are also many problems.
The Cuban effort
No other country has done more than Cuba to bring about a change in the healthcare problems of this planet. They have done so much with their medical education system which has the result that there are more than 24,000 Cuban health professionals active in over 60 countries. This has encouraged more than 10,000 international students to enroll in a full scholarship at one of the Cuban medical school. The healthcare situation in Cuba was not always so efficient. After the revolution of 1959, 3,000 of Cuba remaining 6000 physicians immigrated. However Cuba immediately started to educate students coming from developing countries training them with their own students. From the start there was a commitment on the part of Cuba to make a difference as far as international healthcare systems was concerned. Over the years thousands of international students have graduated from Cuban medical school. In fact there are many of those graduates who are today secretaries of health and some are even involved in the health ministries of other countries.
Sharing their knowledge
Many other countries benefited from the educational system of Cuba. This includes Yemen, Guyana, Ethiopia, Uganda, Ghana, Gambia, Equatorial Guinea, Haiti and Guinea Bissau. Cuba was also involved in other countries such as Venezuela, South Africa, Peru, Paraguay, El Salvador, Ecuador, Dominican Republic, Colombia, Brazil, Bolivia and Angola. Many of these countries have benefited from Cuban professors who provided them with assistance as far as their medical education was concerned. The reality is that the world today and in particular underdeveloped countries would have been in a desperate situation if it had not been for the Cuban influence in global healthcare systems. It is remarkable how much of a difference this tiny country has made.
Growing old is a phase in life impossible to hinder. The elderly are sensitive individuals who require proper care and special attention to maintain steady health and guarantee their good living. Elderly care or senior care is, therefore, necessary and essential to keep the older living citizens amongst us healthy and happy. Elderly care encompasses a deliberate system developed to guarantee vibrancy and access to needed resources required to maintain health and stamina for the prolonged living of older citizens. This system should include a relaxed environment with the proper centres and health workforce to preserve and keep physical strength, an economic system that supports older citizens in financial benefits, locations filled with senior citizens friendly neighbourhood and a dependable healthcare sector with available professionals and geriatric specialists to handle common diseases peculiar to older patients.
Taking all these factors into consideration, the effective transition from working class to senior citizenship is not a comfortable process for both older individuals and relatives. Choosing the area for retirement must be explicitly deliberate as retirement from jobs can be mentally tasking to come to terms with. Newly retired older citizens could develop depression without activities to build the mind and an adequate environment to promote engagement to manage mental alertness. Without a proper location also, the elderly are at the risk of being neglected and abused. The deteriorating health and troubles that accompany old age require special attention and an environment with specialist doctors is very essential. Elderly care is quite sensitive and crucial. It is therefore essential that both the environment, people surrounding the elderly patients and economic conditions must be suitable to enlongate life and promote good health in the old.
Elderly Care in Cuba
The Republic of Cuba located in the Northern Caribbean, south of the state of Florida and the Bahamas, is a beautiful country with a rich Spanish culture and spectacular scenery. With the average life expectancy in Cuba being 70years, the senior citizens make up about 14% of the general population has recorded in urban areas. Due to the high percentage, elderly care in the Republic of Cuba has significantly improved in the past decade. Presently, there are governmental and private-led social, medical and financial care available for older citizens.
The medical care for the elderly in Cuba include free access at all levels for both specialized and general health issues. There is a current surge in geriatric doctors with training initiatives provided to boost the knowledge of family doctors towards understanding geriatric medical needs and expanding their practice. This medical care system has been developed to boost the care and life expectancy of the elderly creating a better health system for the older citizens. The financial assistance towards elderly care in Cuba doesn’t fall short of perfect too. Pensions are usually paid expressly irrespective of the economic situation. Social assistance for older people is rooted deep into Cuban society, creating an environment that facilitates proper care, attention and support for the elderly. The communities are sensitive towards older persons in society and stand in solidarity with neighbourhood assistance and friendly people considerate and open to the elderly.
Elderly care in Cuba is above the standard with both communal and economic ingenuities developed to sustain and improve the lives of elderly persons in the country. As a result of Cuba’s deliberate attempt to improve elderly care, life expectancy remains high and growing. With senior citizens clubs, senior care facility, psychological and sociological research centres, Cuba is fortified with every necessary tool present for senior citizens and elderly persons to thrive.
Benefits of Retirement in Cuba
Retirement is an opportunity to begin a new life and start afresh. In the beautiful city termed a retirement haven, Cuba is the perfect place to take in and relax after a long hectic life of struggles. The benefits of retiring in Cuba thus includes;
Low Cost of Living
The cost of living in Cuba for retirees is quite low. Food and rent are cheap and easy to access with the government offering Snow Bird visas for short term visits. The value of top-notch living in a tropical environment with good-natured individuals, interesting culture and language in comparison to surrounding countries is cheap and affordable. Staying in Cuba does not come at a cost and planning for permanence is highly advisable.
Assisted Living Homes
The assisted living homes in Cuba for the elderly are developed on the foundation of respect, medical adeptness and true support. Cuban culture thrives on quality care and attention for the older generation. The treatment and care costs for an environment that offers good medical services and non-abusive educated workers are relatively cost-effective. Retired individuals with disabilities are given the opportunity to enjoy life irrespective of the condition with excellent assistance at a good rate.
Beautiful Scenery and Safe Environment
An accommodating environment that is safe with an abundance of places to see, explore and visit is Cuba in a nutshell. Explore the architecture and cultural diversity of Camaguey, enjoy the mild beautiful sunset on the beaches in Varadero and be taken captive by Havana and Trinidad’s charm. Old age can be a fun experience in a safe country like Cuba.
The healthcare sector in Cuba is built on a foundation of elderly care available for senior citizens. General practitioners and specialists in the geriatric field are in abundance. Senior citizens care centres are equipped with standard equipment and medical professionals to keep older people in good health. The cost of care for older persons is considerable inexpensive for high-quality care received. Cuba’s life expectancy at 70 years mirrors the United States, proposing evidence for high-quality medical care for the older generation.
Dry and wet seasons in Cuba are characteristic of the tropical nature of the country. The bright sunshine and cool weather is suitable for the old. The weather is not harsh or dangerous and is perfect for retiring old persons. The tropical area provides a warm comforting environment to garden, enjoy the beach and learn new sporting activities even in old age.
The level of quality elderly care in Cuba is the reason it is a top-tier destination for retiring individuals. Alongside the first grade medical care, the inexpensive cost of living and assisted care is perfect for the elderly from all the world. A country where the environment, government and people are designed to promote health of the old is a destination for the best elderly care.
Since the production of the recombinant human form in the Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology of Havana, Cuba, in 1986 Interferon Alfa 2-B antiviral drug has broken barriers in public health as an active therapy against causal agents of diseases. an antiviral and antineoplastic drug used to treat a myriad of virus-borne infectious diseases. The drug, actin as an immune system booster, is simply a recombinant form of the human protein interferon alpha-2 reproduced outside of the body by recombinant DNA technology, exploiting microorganism fast growth.
The history of Interferon Alfa 2-B, in Cuban health history, remains prominent as it was the groundbreaking technology that led to the end of hemorrhagic dengue fever outbreak in the country in the 1980s, igniting the rise of the biopharmaceutical sector. Till today, Interferon Alpha 2-B remains a prominent tool in the treatment and elimination of several diseases and has been more recently used to fight and combat the worldwide Covid-19 pandemic.
How Interferon Alfa 2-B Works
As earlier indicated, Interferon Alfa 2-B is a recombinant form of a protein in the human body that naturally works to fight off viruses in the body. The drug works as a stimulator of the immune system and is classified under medicine as an immunotherapeutic agent. Since Interferon Alfa 2-B is a copy of a naturally occurring human protein belonging to the cytokines family, it mimics and acts the way the original protein does.
The function of Interferon Alfa 2-B when administered is to boost the immune system and assist it in fighting off foreign harmful agents. It is a communicator offering assistance to the immune system for an elongated period due to the presence of polyethylene glycol, bound to it. This act of immunotherapy as an immunotherapy treatment is what makes it useful in the treatment of cancer.
Uses of Interferon Alfa 2-B
Interferon Alfa 2-B is used in various ways to fight off several illnesses. With viral diseases, the therapeutic agent has so far been successful in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C and B. It is a popular drug in the treatment of cancer and found useful in fighting and eliminating AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma, leukaemia, melanoma (cancerous tumours), some genital warts, and hairy cell leukaemia, amongst others.
The drug aids and upregulates the action of antibody stimulation proteins and presenting cells to act against viral proteins and improve health. It can stay in the body longer than typical interferon alfa-b. It enhances the target specificity of macrophages to trap and eliminate viral genetic material and enhances the immune system to act properly. The natural nature of the drug’s mechanism of action makes it very useful in medicine with little possibility of toxicity at the right dosage.
Interferon Alfa 2-B in Treating Covid-19
As the world battled with Covid-19, scientists from all over the world struggled to find a therapeutic solution to reduce the effect of the deadly virus in claiming lives. In Cuba, Interferon Alpha 2-B was a solution which showed considerable promise. During premilinary cohort studies of the efficacy of interferon alfa 2-B on individuals infected with Covid-19, it was discovered that recovery in patients who had received the drug was significantly better than in patients that didn’t receive it as part of their treatment.
As a natural antiviral drug and immune booster, Interferon Alfa 2-B was a lifesaver to the public health sector of Cuba and nations around the world that adopted the drug. Although improvements were seen and experienced, its use in treating coronavirus was not without controversy and criticism.
Critics remained skeptical and indicated that very minimal studies have been conducted on the efficacy of Interferon Alfa 2-B towards eliminating Covid-19. There was also little evidence that long term use of the drug did not pose a future threat to the health of people. The critics even argued that the side effects of the treatment were quite similar to the background symptoms of the Coronavirus infection. However, with China and several other countries purchasing with no news of adverse effects and recorded toxicity, Interferon Alfa 2-B became the wonder drug that mitigated the virus to an extent as research studies for a vaccine progressed.
How Interferon Alfa 2-B Is Administered
Usually, Interferon Alfa 2-B is not advised to be taken without a prescription from a qualified and certified medical practitioner. The antiviral agent is administered intramuscularly or intravenously through injections into the muscle or skin. Shots are usually given in hospitals and medical centres by doctors or medical practitioners. However, with technology and multi-dose pens present for chronic infected sickly patients, it could be used in the home too. But it must be noted that the directions of the manufacturer and prescription by a doctor must be followed judiciously to avoid overdose and errors leading to medical complications.
Is Interferon Alfa 2-B Toxic
Generally, Interferon Alfa 2-B is not toxic to use, neither has there been reports of the adverse effects of the drug. Nonetheless, like every other drug, Immunotherapy has its side effects and specifications for use. It has been noted that sometimes, there could be swellings in the site of injection which should naturally reduce. But if the swelling gets worse, it is advised to see a doctor.
Some of its major side effects include flu-like symptoms including fatigue, fever, headache, nausea, dizziness, dry mouth, and even upset stomach upset. The side effects should last about 24hours after use. If after 24 hours, the side effects persist, patients are advised to see their doctor. Taking Interferon Alfa 2-B must be supplemented with the intake of fluids to boost immunity and strength.
Can Everyone Use Interferon Alfa 2-B?
It is very important for medical purposes to know that although everyone can use Interferon Alfa 2-B, some predisposing factors like the health status of a patient must be considered before using the drug. Typically, pregnant women, partners whose partners are pregnant, individuals with kidney disease and patients allergic to ribavirin are advised not to use it. Therefore, when on a visit to the doctor, it is of essence that you provide the right information to avoid complications with immunotherapy use.
Interferon Alfa 2-B remains an active antiviral and antineoplastic therapeutic drug in fighting against viral diseases and cancer, improving the public health sector. The immunotherapeutic agent is excellent at boosting the immune system and eliminating viral proteins and attachment mechanism, improving the health of users and sickly individuals. Nonetheless, indiscriminate use without a prescription must be avoided.
Almost everybody in this world has faced face a little pain in their ankle while walking it because they are either twisted or turned in an awkward way which our whole leg was unable to handle. This whole twist and turn of the tissue in the ankle can sometimes lead to a rupture in the ligament which was responsible for holding ankle bones together.
The tissue helps to keep the bones together due to which our joint works and move properly. A little bit of tear in a ligament can lead to disturbance in the motion of the entire portion. The sprained ankle mostly happens when the tissue and bones go beyond that particular motion. The sprained ankle can be both internally that is a ligament tear or externally that a twist in a bone structure.
Few symptoms relate to a sprained ankle.
The symptoms of sprained ankle differ from person to person depending upon how severe the pain is. Sometimes the twist in the ankle heals with hours and sometimes it takes daysso the basic symptoms might be the same but the severity level can be different.
Pain, especially when you bear weight on the affected foot
Tenderness when you touch the ankle
Restricted range of motion
Instability in the ankle
Popping sensation or sound at the time of injury
If the severity of the symptoms increases then the pain might be equal to that of breaking the bone. In adult’s the sprain in the ankle is common but in children’s also the sprained ankle is caused due to some minute reasons such as
pain in ankle
Changes in every level of walking.
Sometimes due to tenderness in the bones, there might be a fracture in the bones of the baby.
Causes of Sprained ankle are:
As discussed earlier sprained ankle is a condition which is commonly occurred when the whole ankle gets twisted or there’s a tear in a ligament. Some basic causes can also be reason of sprained ankle such as
Falling can be the major reason why people usually get sprained ankle and by the way the height while falling is not yet determined so if the person falls from a very tall place the severity of the ankle twist will be a lot more than that of pain which will be after falling from a shorter height. Falling while running or during exercise also falls under the falling category.
The overuse of the ankle can be another major reason why people tend to get the sprained ankle. In overuse, there belongs a lot of leg work and less resting due to which at the end of the day all the pressure gets on the ankle and it starts getting sore and causes pain.
3. Previous ankle sprain
An ankle sprain is of many types some of them are acute while some of them are having a huge impact on the entire leg. The acute ankle sprain is a minute ankle sprain that can easily be recovered within 2 3 hours but what if that ankle sprain is not properly healed and people are still putting the same amount of pressure on the ankle which indeed causes a severe ankle sprain.
Treatments and medication regarding ankle sprain:
Treating an ankle sprain is sometimes easy and quite difficult at the same time because sometimes a little ice pack can heal the swelling and pain of the ankle but sometimes that same ankle sprain can last for 3 4 days which will be very dangerous to handle.
1. RICE protocol
Rest, ice, compression, and elevations. In the RICE protocol, one should rest his or her ankle for a while applying some ice over it because ice helps in reducing the swelling then followed by compression and elevations over the respective ankle.
The exercise will stretch the respective muscles such as ankle circles, toe raises, or heel raises. After the surgery or the ankle sprain, the doctors usually suggest performing some minute exercise to keep the blood flowing and prevent it from swelling.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen can ease pain and reduce swelling.
Few respective Medicines for ankle sprain are:
ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others)
naproxen sodium (Aleve, others)
Recovery regarding ankle sprain:
The ankle sprain can be of different types the phases of the ankle sprain are categorized into grade 1, grade 2, and grade 3.
The grade 1 ankle sprain might take few weeks to heal say 1 to 3 weeks.
The grade 2 ankle sprain might take 3 to 5 weeks to heal.
The grade 3 ankle sprain might take few months to heal.
So in conclusion, an ankle sprain can happen to anybody who has a bad walking structure. The ankle sprain can be ignored because that same ignored sprain can cause permanent damage to the ankle so it’s highly suggested that one should always consult a doctor even if there a minute ankle sprain.
Is Coronavirus an impending doom? Videos of civilians dropping dead in Wuhan and footages of hospital personnel there dressed in something that looks like spacesuit are going viral, and it seems like humanity counts its last months on the planet. But is it that bad? Fortunately, no, the situation is not that bad. In just a few weeks, everything will go back to normal, and all this chaos triggered by the outbreak will be remembered by an impeccable feat of Chinese authorities- building a thousand beds fully equipped hospital in only seven days.
That being said, let’s take a closer look at the Coronavirus, the disease it causes, treatments, precautionary measures, and what you can do to protect yourself against it.
The source of all the info in the article: World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
What is Coronavirus?
The virus responsible for the outbreak in Wuhan belongs to a large group of Coronaviruses. All viruses in the group share some characteristics- for example, the structure of their RNA, genome structure, set of replication enzymes, etc. Those „highly technical“ characteristics of Coronaviruses fall into the realm of microbiology, and we won’t further discuss them in this article- they’re not crucial for the talk.
The infections caused by Coronaviruses
Coronaviruses have been around for a long time, causing mild respiratory infections in humans and gastrointestinal diseases in animals. In nature, the reservoir of infection is animals, and people get infected by sharing the same environment with them. That’s how the Wuhan outbreak started. Between humans, the disease is spread by an airborne route.
In the past, Coronaviruses were to blame for a mild common cold- the outbreaks would pop here and there, causing nothing more than a runny nose or flu-like symptoms.
In 2003 the attention of the public was drawn to the unusually aggressive respiratory virus that caused severe lung damage in some patients (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome or SARS). The SARS virus belongs to the group of Coronaviruses. This was the first time a member of the group causes such severe respiratory infection in humans. What was the death rate of SARS? The rate varied a lot among different age groups, ranging from under 1% in persons 24 years of age or younger, to 15% in persons 44 to 64 years old. Altogether, the death rate of SARS was estimated at 10%.
The Coronavirus everybody is buzzing about these days seems to be substantially less lethal than the SARS virus. It’s too early to tell, but judging by the numbers available so far, it appears that the death rate is at about 2%. A more detailed epidemiological insight into the viruses „death profile“ is not available yet.
The symptoms of Coronavirus infection
As mentioned, Coronaviruses cause respiratory infections in humans. The symptoms are unspecific and include runny nose, sore throat, cough, breathing difficulties, shiver, fever, fatigue, or malaise. In other words, judging by the symptoms, one could not make a distinction between Coronavirus infection and common cold or flu.
Compared with other seasonal respiratory infections, the virus tends to cause complications such as pneumonia or kidney failure more often. People with chronic diseases such as diabetes or pulmonary diseases are at higher risk of complications.
The footages of people dropping dead on the streets of Wuhan are a hoax.
Treatments for the Coronavirus
Like for almost all viruses out there, the treatment is symptomatic. This means that it is focused on preventing complications, supporting the patient’s immune system as much as possible, and keeping an eye on those at higher risk of complications. In other words, Coronavirus infection is treated like a common cold or flu.
In patients with a severe form of the disease, doctors might reach out for antibiotics as a precaution of bacterial infection on a terrain of viral pneumonia, for example.
What can you do to protect yourself against Coronavirus?
Prevention is key.
Proper personal hygiene. Wash your hands frequently using soap and water or alcohol-based hand rub. This kills microorganisms on your hands and reduces the risk of infection.
Social distancing is another tactic. At public places, maintain at least 1 meter distance from other people. The infections are transmitted by small droplets when someone sneezes- being too close to the person increases chances of you breathing in the droplets containing the virus. Public transportation, shopping malls, train stations, and similar places should be avoided whenever possible.
Avoid touching eyes, nose, and mouth. The virus invades its host through the mucous membranes of the body. It is extremely sensitive to external conditions, but once it reaches its receptors on epithelial cells, it quickly replicates and continues to invade the host.
If you have symptoms of flu or a common cold, ask for medical help. Most people who get infected recover quickly and thoroughly. However, some get complications that are challenging to treat. This is why it is essential to seek medical help early- just so that doctors could timely diagnose a severe form of a disease and start appropriate treatment.
Masks- yes or no? A mask can help in preventing the spread of the infection. However, when it comes to Coronavirus (and other viral infections), its effectiveness is limited. The mask should be worn correctly and replaced with a new one every 2 hours. Earlier research mask effectiveness showed that they are not as nearly as important as the preventive measures listed above. While wearing a mask does reduce the risk of infection, the level of protection it provides is controversial.
What makes Coronavirus a threat to the world?
The importance of the infection lies in the fact that it has the potential to affect large percentage of population in short period (particularly working population) that way significantly slowing down the entire economy. While the death rate among those infected by the virus in Wuhan is not negligible, it is far below that of the SARS outbreak in 2003. Also, the situation is not new to public health experts- humanity faces the threat of pandemic viruses every ten years or so. From time to time, conditions for the perfect storm align, and the outbreak that has the potential to spread across the entire globe bursts. That’s the risk of living in a modern world in which one person may be in the far East and 24 hours later walking around Manhattan or Toronto.
The abnormal cervical cells symptoms are considered unspecific. This means that neither a physician nor a patient can rely solely on the symptoms when concluding how severe the condition in the background may be. However, although unspecific, they help navigate the medical investigation in the right direction and make an accurate diagnosis.
We have to underline that regular checkups, no matter the symptoms, are the only way for a safe follow-up and timely detection of potentially malignant pathologies. Thus, the most important symptom for appointing a gynecologist examination is the fact that more than one year has passed since the last one.
That being said, let’s take a look at the common abnormal cervical cells symptoms some women experience and the conditions that might lie in the background.
Nabothian cysts 1, 2
Nabothian cysts are common and benign conditions on the cervix and are often seen as multiple cystic lesions. Their size varies, from only a few millimeters in diameter to a few centimeters (in literature, there have been reports of giant nabothian cysts with a diameter of 10 or even more centimeters, but those are quite unusual). Typically, they are asymptomatic, but they may present as a sense of fullness or pain (especially in case of larger cysts), although rarely. They usually occur after childbirth or minor trauma. Although benign, the Nabothian cysts sometimes may appear as malignant lesions, and in such cases further medical examination (MRI) is necessary to resolve the dilemma. If symptomatic, they can be surgically removed.
Cervical Ectropion 2, 3
The condition is also known as cervical ectopy or erosion, and it is actually a benign condition. It occurs when the epithelium of the cervix inside protrudes to its vaginal portion (normally, the epithelial cells of the inside differ from those in the vaginal portion in a sense that they are less resistant to mechanical trauma). The ectropion appears as a reddish patch on the cervix (seen during the pelvic examination). It is commonly seen in adolescents, pregnant women and among those who use oral contraceptive pills (as a means to prevent pregnancy or to treat polycystic ovaries syndrome). The typical symptom is clean to yellowish vaginal discharge without odor. Also, some patients experience spotting, postcoital bleeding or painful intercourse.
Cervical Polyps 2, 4
Cervical polyps are commonly seen in women after the age of 20 who have had at least one child. There are two main types of these polyps:
If they grow inside the cervical canal, they are called endocervical (more common than the other type, usually seen in premenopausal women).
If they grow from the outer surface of the cervix, they are called ectocervical (more common in postmenopausal women)
Cervical polyps do not usually appear in the period of preadolescence. They look like greyish-white, reddish-purple, or cherry-red and manifest themselves as round buds on thin stems, 1-2 centimeters in diameter.
The polyps are typically asymptomatic, but in some patients can cause heavier blood loss during the menstrual bleeding, bleeding or spotting after intercourse/ between the periods or vaginal discharge (which may be foul-smelling, giving that polyps in some patients develop on a terrain of chronic infection). They are usually diagnosed on routine pelvic examination.
It is still unclear why do they occur, but the research evidence suggests that chronic infection plays certain role in their pathogenesis.
Although the lesions are benign, they certainly need a follow-up. In some cases but rarely they are mistaken to be rare forms of malignancies or become malignant themselves (the chances for malignant alteration are estimated at 1:1000).
Cervicitis 1, 2, 5
Cervicitis relates to inflammation of the cervix, no matter its cause. It can be acute or chronic, infectious, or non-infectious. Chlamydia, gonococcus, trichomonas vaginalis, HPV, and Herpes are the most frequent infective agents that cause it. Different pathological entities act differently and carry various long term health risks. It is essential to point out that chronic inflammatory conditions can lead to several irreversible health issues, including cancer, in the long term (this “rule” applies not only to the area of the cervix but to the entire body as well). The typical symptom of cervicitis is a vaginal discharge (patients often report odor), pain (or painful coitus) or spotting (or postcoital bleeding). Quite often, the inflammation is asymptomatic and is discovered during a routine pelvic examination. Some infective agents can cause infertility, and some can cause miscarriage or severe congenital malformations. Giving the fact that the health risk connected to infective cervicitis is high and it is often asymptomatic, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention recommends screening of all sexually active women.
Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer 6
The condition occurs as a consequence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection (not necessarily). But what exactly is the cervical intraepithelial neoplasia? This term is used to describe subtle changes seen in cells of cervix as they transform from healthy cells to cancerous ones. The process is slow and takes 10 to 20 years to go from CIN 1 to cervical cancer. There are three different shades of CIN 1, 2, and 3. The grading system concerns the depth to which the changed cells have reached, so CIN 1 means less than one-third of the cervical epithelium is changed, CIN 2 one to two thirds and CIN 3 more than two thirds. When it comes to grading CIN, its thickness is not the only parameter in decision making. The microscopic appearance of the cells and some biochemical markers plays a role as well.
There are more than 100 strains of HPV, and not all are equally cancerous. Types 16 and 18 are responsible for 75-80% of all cases of cervical cancer worldwide.
The symptoms of CIN are unspecific. Some patients are asymptomatic; others present with abnormal vaginal discharge or pelvic pain.
The abnormal cervical cells symptoms are unspecific. Without a routine pelvic exam in combination with other diagnostic tools (pap-smear, ultrasound, etc.), it is impossible to establish an accurate diagnosis. Also, abnormal cervical cells may be asymptomatic. This is why it is so important to do the annual checkups and follow screening guidelines (health professionals are regularly updated with these guidelines).
Generally speaking, the abnormal cervical cells symptoms include changes in the appearance or volume of the vaginal discharge, pain in the pelvic area (that may be in relation to intercourse, or occur without obvious explanation) and bleeding (abnormal bleeding of any intensity and volume).
El-Agwany A. S. (2018). Large Multilocular Cystic Lesions in the Uterine Cervix: Differential Diagnosis and Significance. Journal of medical ultrasound, 26(3), 153–156.
Casey, P. M., Long, M. E., &Marnach, M. L. (2011). Abnormal cervical appearance: what to do, when to worry?. Mayo Clinic proceedings, 86(2), 147–151.
Mitchell, L., King, M., Brillhart, H., & Goldstein, A. (2017). Cervical Ectropion May Be a Cause of Desquamative Inflammatory Vaginitis. Sexual medicine, 5(3), e212–e214.
Cervical polyps in postmenopausal women: is there a difference in risk? Schnatz PF, Ricci S, O’Sullivan DM Menopause. 2009 May-Jun; 16(3):524-8.
Young C, Argáez C. Management and Treatment of Cervicitis: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines [Internet]. Ottawa (ON): Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health; 2017 Sep 21.
The field of Orthopedics surgery is related to the complications and treatment of the musculoskeletal system in a human body. This field focuses on the complications arising in bones, muscles, joints, and ligaments in a human body. Surgeons adopt both surgical and non-surgical methods in treating fractures, injuries and spine problems.
You can go to an Orthopedist to diagnose any problem related to joints, muscles or bones. They can advise you on how to prevent the same and can provide treatment if it’s the best course to take. Athletes, bodybuilders and sports person also tend to develop complications related to muscles and spine which can be treated by orthopedic surgery.
The Growing Need of More Orthopedists
It is true that orthopedists are few in numbers. This increases the misery of patients around the globe to find qualified orthopedists for their treatment. There is a huge waiting list for patients as it’s pretty hard to get a consultation with an orthopedist. This is for a simple reason that demand exceeds supply. There are countless patients but a limited number of doctors. So there is a need to promote this field of medical science with students to pick this as their career.
Orthopedic Advancements in Cuba
This is worth mentioning that Cuba has a countless number of Orthopedists who are keen on treating patients. So, this can be your next possible destination to cure your musculoskeletal disease. Most of Americans and Canadians go to Cuba to treat their problems as Cuba has become very popular in the field of Orthopedics.
The use of latest technology and medical equipment has also played a major role in the advancement of orthopedics in Cuba. Technology advancements have made it easier to handle patients without performing large incisions in their body. Orthopedic patients can be treated with much less intrusion which will help them to heal relatively faster. This resulted in very low pain infliction patients and less amount of blood loss. Orthopedists can now have a 3D (before 2D) look of the spine which increases the chances of a successful surgery.
In Addition, Cuba Offers the Following Surgical and Treatment Procedures
CubaHeal is adamant in providing the patient with all the logistical support such processing treatment requests, gaining treatment approval, and booking and visa granting support. Furthermore, our Cuban field team carries translation and personal support services and tasks for the patient and to eliminate all social boundaries and to ensure proper treatment can be availed by anyone at anytime in Cuba.
Cancer is clearly the deadliest disease known worldwide as it is the second leading cause of deaths globally with an estimated prevalence of one in three people developing cancer during their lifetime .
The term Cancer defines a large group of diseases that can affect any part of the body; the pathological mechanism of cancer is the transformation of normal healthy cells that become abnormal and proliferate excessively. These disordered cells eventually form a mass called malignant tumor. Cancer cells tend to invade nearby tissues and become detached from the tumor. They then migrate through the blood vessels and lymphatics to form another tumor (metastasis).
The most commonly diagnosed cancers in the world are lung, breast and colorectal cancer AND The most common deaths are caused by lung cancer, stomach and liver cancer.
The definitive cure for cancer still does not exist nowadays and we can also say that the cancer response will never come from a single miracle pill , but complete remission has been achieved in many cases in response to various treatments.
treatment of cancer requires having a diagnosis of certainty and knowing the type of cancer; evaluation of local and regional extension and the presence or absence of metastases with assessment of the general condition of the patient (age, cardiac and renal function, presence of other diseases).
The classic cancer therapies include surgery, radiation and chemotherapy that aim to remove cancer cells surgically and destroy them by toxic chemicals that are also toxic to normal cells as well, these classic therapies rarely succeed to eradicate every single cancer cell, so even if few cancerous cells survive the therapy, they can proliferate again and produce a relapse of the disease few months or years later
Cancer treatment definetly changed over the last decades with the emerging of new strategies based on better understanding of cancer cell biology , these new therapies include : antibodies ,viral therapy and antiangiogenic drugs that stop tumors from growing new blood vessels
one leading research in the treatment of lung cancer, which is one of the deadliest cancers, is the CimaVax-EGF: a vaccine used to treat patients with lung cancer and as a preventive measure for people at high risk of suffering from this disease. At present, this drug is available in the country’s hospital network, and it has been registered in several countries.
With Trials organized in the United States, the European Union, Japan, and Serbia that showed increased a chance of survival.
CIMAvax is based on a unique mechanism because it starves cancer cells : It does not target the cancer cells directly, but is expected to work against these cancers by denying the cancers the growth stimulus they require.
In addition, Cuban scientists have just completed their research on two other promising cancer drugs: Racotumomab and VSSP. The first acts on a molecule present in all cancer cells, which means that this drug may one day be effective against leukemia and tumors of the lung, breast, prostate and colon, while the VSSP, designed to Originally as a compound to activate the immune response to vaccines, it also seems to stimulate the immune response to cancer.
Nimotuzumab is also used to treat many types of head and neck cancers, including those that form on the mucous surfaces of the mouth, nose, brain and nasopharynx. This drug can bind epidermal growth factor receptors in cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and spreading.
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a key target in the development of cancer therapeutics, it is a signaling protein that normally controls cell division. In some cancers, this receptor is altered to cause uncontrolled cell division, a hallmark of cancer, nimotuzumab works by blocking that receptor and eventually it stops the uncontrolled cell division.
Cuban Approach to Cancer Treatment:
Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in Cuba. This is partly due to longer life expectancy but also to the adoption of unhealthy lifestyles. Too many people abuse alcohol, have an unbalanced diet and consume tobacco
To cope with this situation, Cuba has followed the recommendations of the World Health Organization and has put in place a comprehensive national plan that guarantees access to all levels of health services – prevention, diagnosis, treatment and palliative care. The plan builds on a strong primary care system that allows physicians to see their patients regularly and detect health problems early. Patients suspected of having cancer are referred to specialized centers for diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
To support this approach, the government has invested heavily in biotechnology. In recent years, Cuban scientists have made tremendous progress in finding new treatments for cancer and new tools to improve diagnosis and prevention.
Early detection of cancer remains the ultimate treatment option: Screening in both healthy and high-risk populations offers the opportunity to detect cancer early and with an increased opportunity for treatment and curative intent
Screening for the identification of cancer or precancerous lesions at an early stage of its development greatly increases the chances of successful treatment. It is based on screening, but also on the education of patients with early diagnosis, when it comes to early detection of cancer awareness is the most important factor, some early signs of cancer include lumps, sores that fail to heal, abnormal bleeding, persistent
indigestion, and chronic hoarseness. Certain types of cancer are accessible to simple tests that identify, in a healthy population, subjects who have cancer but do not yet have symptoms. This is particularly the case with breast, colorectal and cervical cancers.
Cuba is at the forefront of orthopedic surgery, continuously evolving, creating new surgical techniques, designing medical devices, and improving patient’s quality of life. Hospitals in Cuba adhere to a strict conduit of hygiene, while also providing patient-center medical care. Due to the high standards of professionalism and efficiency that hospitals and medical staff uphold. Cuba attracts over 25 000 medical tourists each year.
Cuba has brought numerous innovations in the field of Orthopedics and Traumatology over the years, from which the entire world has benefited. Cuba has contributed to numerous advancements in joint replacement surgical techniques, As well as the development of more durable and efficient joint replacement prosthesis.
Total Hip Replacement Surgery
The primary indication for total hip replacement surgery is to relieve pain caused by severe osteoarthritis, inflammatory arthritis and avascular necrosis of the femoral head. Secondary indications include correction of significant deformities and post-traumatic reconstruction. Joint replacement is considered when the pain is disabling and significant or in cases in which joint dysfunction is causing significant reduction in the patient’s quality of life.
The surgery implies removing the damaged joint and replacing it with an artificial prosthesis. The artificial hip joint replacement has traditionally been made with cemented polyethylene cup implants.
However, Cuba has advanced to using “cementless” prostheses. These particular prostheses have microscopic pores which allow bony ingrowth from the normal femur into the prosthesis stem. This “cementless” hip is felt to have a longer duration and is considered especially for younger patients. The prosthesis can also be customized acording to the patient’s needs and anatomy.
Cuba has pioneered the surgical technique for cementless hip replacement surgery that is currently being used world-wide. Although many varieties of these specialized prostheses now exist; the most used model in Cuba is a prosthesis made of metal and polyethylene covered with hydroxyapatite , which is the main mineral component of bone , obtained naturally from coral and also synthetically in the laboratory. It is produced at the National Scientific Research Center, part of the west Havana scientific complex.
Advances in hip replacement surgery have also allowed for a „minimal invasive” surgery technique to be developed. The classical hip replacement surgery technique implies making an 10 to 25 cm cut along the side of the hip. In the minimally-invasive approach, doctors make one to two cuts from 5 to 13 cm long. The same procedure is performed through these small incisions as with standard hip replacement surgery. The aim of the minimal invasive approach is to limit soft-tissue and bone dissection.
Specialized instruments and trained assistants are essential for the success of this technique. The instruments are designed to keep the assistant’s hands out of the operative field while generating less tension on the soft tissues. Robotic or computer guidance can be used to virtually visualize the minimally exposed anatomy.
The use of small incisions, coupled with minimal tissue damage has been shown to lessen blood loss, ease pain following surgery, shorten hospital stays, reduce scar appearance, and speed healing. Moreover, 97% of patients attained standard physical therapy goals (transferring in and out of bed from standing, rising from a chair to standing, moving from standing to sitting, walking 100 feet, and negotiating a full flight of stairs) within 1 day of surgery.
While the technique is certainly an advancement in hip replacement surgery; it is difficult and requires highly trained medical team. Smaller incisions mean poor visibility of the area. Surgeons need to have excellent understanding of the anatomy of the region and have access to specialized hands-on training by operating on cadavers and by visiting experienced surgeons.
Specialized instruments and trained assistants are also essential for the success of this technique. The instruments are designed to keep the assistant’s hands out of the operative field while generating less tension on the soft tissues.
Total Knee replacement surgery
The primary indication for total knee replacement surgery is relief of significant, disabling pain caused by severe arthritis. Generally, it is indicated in older patients with more modest activities. It is also clearly indicated in younger patients who have limited function because of systemic arthritis with multiple joint involvement.
Significant advances have occurred in the type and quality of the metals, polyethylene, and, more recently, ceramics used in the prosthesis manufacturing process, leading to improved longevity. As with most techniques in modern medicine, more and more patients are receiving the benefits of total knee arthroplasty. In Cuba, an average of 140 total and revision knee replacement surgeries per 100.000 population are performed annualy.
For total knee replacement surgery Cuba now uses the KALISTE prosthesis model, manufactured by the French company FHorthopedic. Kalisté Total Knee System is a tricompartmental resurfacing prosthesis that allows the surgeons to begin the knee replacement surgery with either the tibial stage or the femoral stage. This prosthesis can be customized to the patient’s anatomy and has been designed to admit posterior cruciate ligaments PCLretaining or posterior stabilized PS Knee prosthesis.
The use of this knee replacement prosthesis coupled with the excellent surgical techniques that Cuban surgeons employ have led to excellent success rates. Statistics show that 91% of patients that have undergone the technique attained standard physical therapy goals within 2 day of surgery.
In addition to providing excellent medical care, Cuba has extremely affordable prices for various orthopedic surgeries, including total hip and knee replacement. A standard that should be upheld all over the world as medical care is a right, and not a privilege.
CubaHeal Medical is a global organization specialized in facilitating medical treatments, medical education, in addition to patient and student care in the Republic of Cuba. CubaHeal is a loyal supporter of the Republic of Cuba, the Cuban people, the Cuban revolution, and the Cuban revolutionary leadership.