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If you’re looking to study medicine in Cuba, you have come to the right place. Cuba has a world-renowned medical education system that has trained thousands of doctors who now work in countries around the globe. In this article, we’ll explore the benefits of studying medicine in Cuba, the admission requirements, and what you can expect from the curriculum.

Study medicine in Cuba

Why Study Medicine in Cuba?

Cuba has been consistently recognized for its excellence in healthcare and medical education. The country has a long history of sending medical professionals to work in other countries, particularly in areas of need. This is a testament to the quality of education provided by Cuba’s medical schools.

In addition to the quality of education, studying medicine in Cuba is also an affordable option. Compared to medical schools in other countries, the tuition fees in Cuba are relatively low. This makes it an attractive option for students who may not be able to afford the high costs of medical education in other countries.


Admission Requirements

To apply for medical school in Cuba, you must have completed high school or an equivalent program. You will also need to pass an entrance exam that tests your knowledge of basic sciences such as biology, chemistry, and physics. Additionally, you will need to have a good command of the Spanish language, as all courses are taught in Spanish.

It’s worth noting that the admission process for international students is highly competitive. This is because the number of seats available for international students is limited. Therefore, it’s important to prepare well for the entrance exam and to have a strong academic record.



The medical education system in Cuba is based on a six-year curriculum. The first two years are dedicated to basic sciences such as anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry. The next two years focus on clinical sciences, including internal medicine, pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, and surgery. The final two years are spent completing clinical rotations in various specialties.

In addition to the core curriculum, students are also required to complete community service and research projects. This is in line with Cuba’s emphasis on preventive medicine and public health.

Check this page for more informations.



Studying medicine in Cuba is an excellent option for students who are passionate about healthcare and want to make a difference in the world. The quality of education and the affordable tuition fees make it an attractive option. However, it’s important to keep in mind that the admission process is highly competitive, and students will need to work hard to succeed. If you’re up for the challenge, studying medicine in Cuba could be the first step towards a fulfilling career in healthcare.


I had read about the pediatrician who was part of the brigade of 32 healthcare professionals who traveled to Turkey on February 11th to provide medical assistance to those affected by the violent earthquake that struck that country and Syria earlier that month. It was not difficult to identify her among her companions, not only because of the affectionate and heartfelt greeting that the Cuban Minister of Health, Dr. José Ángel Portal Miranda, greeted her with, as is his custom, but also because of her youth and her excited face during the official reception of the brigade. A few minutes later, I was able to speak with her:

“An experience like this tests you in every way, the professional part, as a doctor; the human part; the physical part, it is very strong. It is a beautiful experience, but strong and grateful to have been able to participate in the mission, grateful to have been able to go to help the Turkish people who were in very bad conditions, there in the city where we arrived.”

“And it touches each one of us because it is one thing to go to work as a doctor and it is another thing to see the conditions in which these people live, the conditions in which you treat these people, often for days without medical care, since the earthquake itself, people who have lost a lot, lost family members, lost material goods. Above all, they are people with an enormous human quality, in spite of the situation in which they lived, they always showed gestures of affection, of gratitude, of humility. They gave us what little they had, often without having anything, and this was evident from the highest officials to the people with the lowest cultural level, it was shocking but really beautiful,” she added.

“Children who lived in tents, who had lost their families, children who had only one neighbor, one relative, it is hard, it is very hard. Many times I had to take care of them in tents, in their homes, people who had pitched their tents on the edge of the collapse of their homes, who had lost practically everything, it is hard, hard, hard. And the children’s part even more so when you come across these cases”.

“I had no experience outside of Cuba, my professional experience had always been in the country, and this was a school in every way, you could say, a wonderful experience, but also a school”.

“The most striking thing was the Turkish people’s knowledge of Cuba, their gratitude to the Cuban people. For them to mention Cuba, to tell them that you are a doctor, to tell them that you are a Cuban doctor, is something enormous for them. The children, the elderly, the doctors, the nurses, the health workers, everybody was very grateful to us at all times, and without their help we would not have been able to do the work, because of the language, because of the terrain. We were really able to work hand in hand with them, and I think it was partly because of this affection, this appreciation, this knowledge that they have of Cuba. They love Cuba, they love the Cuban people.

These were the words of Dr. Alemy Paret Rodríguez, a first-degree pediatrician and teacher. Unbeknownst to this journalist, she works at the Roberto Rodríguez Teaching Hospital in Morón, the city where she lives. The surprise when I arrived from Turkey was that that morning I would be interviewing a beautiful doctor of whom I already had references, but without knowing that we were compatriots. Morón in Turkey.

When asked what she planned to do, she replied with the same honesty as in the previous questions: “Rest, I need to rest, go see my family, I haven’t seen them for a month, and most of all rest, I need to rest.


Ministry of Public Health of Cuba
Medical Collaboration
Medical Collaboration
The Modern Poetry (La Moderna Poesía) – Morón, Cuba
People from Morón – Cuba.


Diabetes insipidus occurs as a result of vasopressin deficiency (antidiuretic hormone caused by a hypothalamic-pituitary disorder, which is known as central diabetes insipidus) or by resistance of the kidneys to vasopressin (nephrogenic diabetes insipidus). The disease is primarily characterized by polyuria (abundant urine excretion) and polydipsia (pathological need to drink water) and is confirmed by the water suppression test, which reveals a failure of maximal urine concentration.  

Diabetes insipidus

Little known, Diabetes Insipidus is rare and is often not detected by the patient as a disease but tends to confuse it simply with an abundant intake of water. In the case of central neurogenic diabetes insipidus, it can appear at any age, and its only symptoms are polydipsia and polyuria. The almost uncontrollable need of the patient to drink large amounts of water and in turn excrete large volumes of very dilute urine which is known as low density polyuria may appear associated with it. This may cause the person to feel fatigue or discomfort, headache and even dizziness. If the person does not replenish the amount of water due to continuous losses of fluid through urine, dehydration and hypovolemia can occur. 

It is important to note that Diabetes insipidus is not the same as Diabetes Mellitus type 1 and 2. However, without proper treatment they all cause constant thirst and frequent urination. In the case of Diabetes Mellitus, people have an elevated blood glucose level, those with Diabetes Insipidus have normal blood sugar levels, but it is their kidneys that are not able to maintain the balance of fluids in the body. 

Diabetes insipidus occurs when the body cannot regulate fluid levels properly. The kidneys filter the fluid portion of the blood to remove waste. Urine is excreted after being temporarily stored in the bladder. A hormone called antidiuretic hormone, or vasopressin, is needed to return the fluid filtered by the kidneys back into the bloodstream. If you have this type of diabetes, your body will not be able to regulate fluid levels properly. The different types of diabetes include the following: 

  • Central diabetes insipidus: the damage is in the pituitary gland or hypothalamus. It is rare and may result from genetic problems, head trauma, infection in the brain, autoimmune diseases, loss of blood supply to the pituitary gland, or tumors in or near the pituitary gland; 
  • Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus: it occurs when there is a defect in the structure of the kidneys that prevents them from responding to antidiuretic hormone. It can be caused by certain medications, genetic problems, high levels of calcium in the body, or a kidney disease known as polycystic kidney disease; 
  • Gestational diabetes insipidus: it is rare and occurs when an enzyme produced by the placenta destroys the mother’s antidiuretic hormone; 
  • Primary polydipsia: it is the production of large amounts of low-density urine as a result of excessive water drinking. It may be caused by damage to the thirst regulation mechanism in the hypothalamus. 


  • The water suppression test is the simplest and most reliable method of diagnosing central diabetes insipidus. This test should only be done under medical supervision as it can lead to dehydration of the patient. If psychogenic polydipsia is suspected, the patient should be monitored to prevent inadvertent ingestion of water. 

The test is very simple and starts by taking the patient’s vital signs and weight and taking a blood sample to evaluate electrolyte concentrations and osmolality (concentration of active particles in the urine). The urine is then collected once every hour to measure its density.  

  • MRI: it can detect abnormalities in or near the pituitary gland. This test is noninvasive; 
  • Genetic testing: it will be done if there is a family history. 

There is no cure for Diabetes Insipidus; however, there are very effective treatments that help the patient to reduce urine production, control thirst and avoid dehydration. 


  • Hormonal medications; 
  • Non-hormonal medications, e.g. diuretics; 
  • Central diabetes insipidus can be treated with hormone replacement and treatment of the original causes. It is important to note that if Diabetes Insipidus is present and not adequately treated, permanent kidney damage may develop; 
  • Reducing salt intake can be beneficial because it decreases diuresis by reducing solute load.  

Diabetes insipidus can cause an imbalance in the minerals present in the blood, such as sodium and potassium, which maintain fluid balance in the body. If this occurs the patient may present: 

  • Weakness; 
  • Nausea; 
  • Vomiting; 
  • Loss of appetite; 
  • Muscle cramps; 
  • Confusion.  

In summary, Diabetes insipidus is a rare disorder of water metabolism. It is caused by a lack of response or a poor response to the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin. This hormone controls water balance through urine concentration. Patients with diabetes insipidus urinate a lot, so they must drink a lot of water.   

If you are suffering from any of the above symptoms and have noticed that you are drinking large amounts of water and urinating as well, we recommend that you make an appointment with a physician.  

CHMT has a group of experts who can guide you and help you find the solution to your condition.


Surgical myocardial revascularization is the most frequent cardiac intervention and one of the greatest achievements in surgery. It consists of bypassing the blood flow through native coronary arteries with high-grade stenosis or occlusion that cannot be solved by angioplasty with the introduction of an endovascular prosthesis. 


Cardiovascular diseases can manifest itself in many forms: high blood pressure, coronary artery disease, valvular disease, stroke and arrhythmias. 

Major risk factors for cardiovascular disease include: 

  • High blood pressure; 
  • High cholesterol; 
  • Diabetes; 
  • Obesity and overweight; 
  • Smoking; 
  • Sedentary lifestyle; 
  • Genetic diseases; 
  • Age; 
  • Alcoholism. 

Stress is considered a contributing factor to cardiovascular risk, as stressful situations increase heart rate and blood pressure, increasing the heart’s need for oxygen. At times of stress, the nervous system releases more hormones causing blood pressure to rise, which can damage the inner lining of the arteries. Stress also increases the concentration of clotting factors in the blood, which can lead to the formation of a blood clot. 


The traditional surgical myocardial revascularization consists of a thoracotomy through a midline sternotomy. A pump must be used to maintain extracorporeal circulation between the heart and lung, which allows the heart to be stopped and emptied of blood in order to achieve maximum surgical exposure and facilitate the completion of vascular anastomoses. Stopping the heart also significantly reduces myocardial oxygen demand. 

Before starting cardiopulmonary bypass, the patient must receive a very high dose of heparin to prevent clotting in the circuit through which the blood will circulate out of the body. The aorta is then clamped and the heart is stopped with an injection of cardioplegic solution which also contains substances that help myocardial cells tolerate ischemia and reperfusion. The patient’s temperature is also reduced by a pump-dependent mechanism to achieve the same ends. 

Once the vascular anastomoses are completed, the aorta is unclamped, allowing perfusion of the coronary arteries with oxygenated blood, which restores cardiac activity. Heparin anticoagulation is reversed with protamine. Despite cardioprotective measures, stopping the heart is not without risk; these events are treated with conventional measures, such as pacemaker placement, defibrillation, and administration of inotropics. 


The main complications and disadvantages of traditional myocardial revascularization are: 

  • Sternotomy; 
  • Extracorporeal circulation. 

The median sternotomy is fairly well tolerated, however it takes 4 to 6 weeks to heal. Infections of the incision can cause mediastinitis or sternal osteomyelitis, which can be very difficult to treat. 

Extracorporeal circulation causes several complications, such as: 

  • Hemorrhage; 
  • Organ dysfunction; 
  • Neuropsychiatric effects; 
  • Stroke. 

Post-pump bleeding is a problem caused by a variety of factors, including hemodilution, heparin use, platelet dysfunction generated by pump exposure, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and induced hypothermia. 

Organ dysfunction may be due to a systemic inflammatory response caused by the heart-lung machine. This response may cause organ dysfunction in some system or apparatus such as the lungs, kidneys, brain, among others.  

Other frequent complications related to surgical myocardial revascularization include: 

  • Focal myocardial ischemia; 
  • Global myocardial ischemia; 
  • Arrhythmias. 

The mortality rate depends mainly on the patient’s previous state of health, but the experience of the medical staff and the conditions of the institution are very important.  Newer techniques attempt to limit the complications of traditional surgical myocardial revascularization by: 

  • Avoiding the need for cardiopulmonary bypass, i.e. surgical myocardial revascularization without a heart-lung bypass pump. This pump can be avoided in selected patients by means of techniques that allow the surgeon to revascularize the heart without stopping its beating. 
  • Avoiding median sternotomy (minimally invasive myocardial revascularization surgery). This technique is somewhat difficult and may not be possible when several anastomoses must be performed, particularly when they involve vessels behind the heart.  

Coronary revascularization is a therapeutic intervention that, although not without risk, is fully established and therefore included in all treatment strategies for patients with coronary artery disease. 

You may need this procedure if you have a blockage in one or more coronary arteries. The coronary arteries are the blood vessels suppling the heart with oxygen and nutrients carried in the blood. 

When one or more of the coronary arteries become partially or completely blocked, the heart does not receive enough blood. This is called ischemic heart disease or coronary artery disease and can cause chest pain (angina). 

Coronary artery bypass surgery may be used to improve circulation to the heart, although  specialists usually first try to treat it with medication, dietary changes or angioplasty and stenting. 

Coronary artery disease is different for everyone. The way it is diagnosed and treated also varies. 

Recovery from surgery takes time and in some cases the full benefits may not be felt until 3 months after surgery. In most cases, patients who undergo coronary artery bypass surgery, the grafts remain open and work well for many years. It is recommended to take measures to reduce the risk of a relapse for example: 

  • Not smoking; 
  • Eating a healthy cardio diet; 
  • Control arterial hypertension; 
  • Control glycemia and cholesterol. 

Among the risks that a person may have for needing long-term cardiovascular surgery are high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia (elevated lipid levels).  

Risk factors: 

  • High blood pressure; 
  • High cholesterol; 
  • Diabetes; 
  • Obesity and overweight; 
  • Smoking, alcoholism, drug addiction; 
  • Sedentary lifestyle; 
  • Inherited genetic diseases; 
  • Age 

It is never too late to start improving your cardiovascular health. Some risk factors can be controlled but others cannot, but if you eliminate bad habits and start living a healthy lifestyle, you are likely to reduce your risk of heart disease.  

If you suffer from high blood pressure, obesity or any of the risk factors mentioned above, we recommend you to visit a specialist immediately so that you can prevent cardiovascular disease. CHMT offers you the possibility of accessing innovative medical methods through which you will be able to obtain a safe, effective and personalized treatment. 


Cuba has a highly developed health care system, which can be compared to those of more industrialized countries. The Cuban health care system has many new and unique features. It is funded by the Revolutionary State and is based on the needs of the population rather than on financial solvency ratios. Medical and dental care is a constitutional right and patients are not charged for it. 

It is impossible to think of human life and health without the care of a nursing professional.  Nursing is part of the health sciences and encompasses the care of people of all ages, families, groups and communities, being sick or not, and in all circumstances. They are always on the front line in any situation involving a struggle for life, whether it is the birth of a baby, the care of a sick or injured person, the terminal condition of a person, or even in preventive health care. 

In Cuba, nurses play an essential role in the National Health System, since they provide their services at all levels of medical care. Their presence, for example, in primary health care enables to improve the functioning of services in all community clinics and polyclinics. 

They usually form a great team with the family doctor, and are often a great support for recent graduates or medical students, who are nurtured by their experience and skills. Nurses are trained in the country’s universities of medical sciences, in several faculties and at the National Public Health School, thus seeking to ensure their presence at all three levels of care. 

On the other hand, a large number of nurses are part of the Cuban healthcare professional brigades engaged in international missions in other countries and respond to the calls of brotherly peoples in need of medical attention. 

The Cuban nursing staff is recognized for their scientific and technical preparation and their dedication to work in primary health care in each locality, in hospitals, in health promotion and prevention campaigns and in international work. 

The world is currently facing a deadly and silent enemy. It is the SARS-CoV-2 virus, whose outbreak began in China in December 2019 and has already spread to 183 other countries, leaving almost four million people infected and more than 270,000 dead worldwide. In this context, our nurses have shown their compassion, courage and professionalism to face difficult situations. 

The scientific and technical development of nursing professionals in Cuba has allowed them to reach higher levels in the understanding of values, based on the evaluation of each patient as a starting point for their treatment, considering them not as an object but as a subject. This concept implies that the person is deemed as the most necessary and active element to be taken into account. 

Cuban nursing staff has always been characterized by a high level of response to different situations. Nurses graduated on the island have demonstrated their competence in the face of major health crises, showing their ability to act while maintaining high standards of professionalism. 

When it comes to excellence in health, Cuban nursing staff is a paradigm, playing an essential role in building resilient health systems. Throughout the world, and without leaving aside other health services, they were on the front line of the battle against COVID-19 and have been the soul of vaccination to prevent this and other diseases. As a service profession, but also of many challenges, dedication and altruism, the work carried out by nurses is fundamental to promoting health, preventing disease and sustaining patient care. With their daily work, Cuban nursing staff faces every crisis situation both in Cuba and in the rest of the world. 

The Largest Island of the Antilles is one of the countries with the biggest number of nurses in the world. In addition, they are qualified personnel, since most of them are specialists in emergency, community and maternal and child nursing. 

They have centered their training on the basis of full integration to work. This premise aims to train professionals who respond to the present and future needs of the country’s development. The nursing specialty is based on the theoretical knowledge and practical skills of the profession, from a holistic and integrative conception of the social factors of health, which are applied in the work from the community, in order to promote, maintain and restore health. 

Cuban nurses show their knowledge, judgments and technical skills and a series of attributes and attitudes in each treatment, in each patient. They are able to apply nursing procedures and protocols and at the same time, establish assertive interpersonal and interprofessional communication. 

Cuban nursing has been a determining factor in the training of health brigades, vaccination campaigns, analysis of health situations, confronting population aging, combating epidemics and viral diseases, and international collaboration. 

The Cuban nurses’ work has a social impact that lies in the fact that the technological development advances are used by this group of healthcare workers without losing the humanistic sense of the profession in the relationship with the patient, the family and all the personnel involved in the process. 

The Cuban nursing has unavoidable duties, primarily related to providing professional care of quality and excellence, based on a system of knowledge and evidence guaranteeing the efficacy and efficiency of its practice. 

Today Cuban nursing staff is a vanguard army, a symbol of love, hope and full consecration, as well as of high professionalism and ethics, which is recognized and loved by the whole world. 


Lung carcinoma is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In lung cancer, the healthy cell that becomes the tumor cell is in the epithelium lining the entire respiratory tree from the trachea to the thinnest terminal bronchiole. Symptoms may include cough, chest discomfort or pain, weight loss and less frequently hemoptysis (coughing up blood). Depending on the stage of the disease, treatment consists of surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy or a combination of some of these modalities.

Primary lung cancer is a cancer that originates from lung cells. It may start in the respiratory tracks that branch off from the trachea (windpipe) to ventilate the lungs (bronchi) or in the small air sacs of the lung (alveoli). Metastatic lung cancer is cancer that has spread from other parts of the body, most often from the breast, colon, prostate, kidneys, thyroid glands, stomach, cervix, rectum, testicles, bones or skin. Most patients do not see a doctor until they have the first symptoms and these vary depending on the stage of the disease. Diagnosis usually occurs because the tumor begins to interfere with nearby organs.


The most important cause of lung cancer in about 85% of cases is smoking. The risk of lung cancer increases with combined exposure to toxins and smoking. Other risk factors include air pollution, marijuana use, exposure to carcinogens (asbestos, arsenic, nickel, chromates, among others). The risk of lung cancer associated with electronic nicotine delivery systems such as electronic cigarettes has not yet been determined, although it is believed that tobacco combustion products are the main carcinogens. Other causes also include genetic factors.

Respiratory epithelial cells require prolonged exposure to cancer-promoting agents and the accumulation of multiple genetic mutations before becoming neoplastic.


About 25% of lung cancer patients are asymptomatic and are detected mainly incidentally by chest x-ray. When symptoms begin to appear they are a consequence of the progression of the disease whether local, regional dissemination or metastasis. The manifestations of lung cancer generally depend on the stage of the disease. The initial stages are usually asymptomatic or with symptoms that can be confused with other diseases.

The most frequent symptoms are:

  • Tiredness;
  • Loss of appetite;
  • Dry cough;
  • Coughing up blood;
  • Shortness of breath;
  • Pain in bone structures;
  • Other symptoms may arise from metastasis or invasion of tumor cells into the lymph nodes, bones, brain, liver and adrenal glands.

Lung cancer is classified according to what type of cells make up the tumor:

  • Non-small cell lung cancer;
  • Small cell or microcytic lung cancer. This is a very aggressive cancer that grows and spreads very quickly.

When the tumor is local it may cause cough and less frequently dyspnea due to respiratory track obstruction, post-obstructive atelectasis or pneumonia and parenchymal loss due to lymphangitic spread. In the case of pneumonia, it may present with fever. Some patients report vague or localized chest pain. Hemoptysis is less common, and blood loss is minimal, unless the tumor erodes into a major artery and causes massive hemorrhage, but as mentioned above hemoptysis only occurs in about 10% of patients.

When tumor spread is regional it can cause pleuritic chest pain or dyspnea due to the development of pleural effusion; hoarseness, resulting from tumor invasion of the laryngeal nerve; and dyspnea and hypoxia due to diaphragmatic paralysis, due to involvement of the phrenic nerve.

Over time metastases cause other symptoms that vary by location, metastases can spread to:

  • Liver: causes pain, nausea, early satiety and even liver failure;
  • Brain: causes behavioral changes, confusion, aphasia, seizures, paralysis, nausea and vomiting;
  • Bones: can cause severe pain and pathological fractures;
  • Adrenal glands: rarely with adrenal insufficiency.

Diagnosis is made through:

  • Chest x-ray;
  • Positron emission tomography;
  • Cytopathologic examination of pleural fluid or sputum;
  • Bronchoscopy-guided biopsy and core needle biopsy;
  • Lung biopsy.

To determine the treatment for lung cancer, the size and location of the tumor must be taken into account. Depending on this, there are different types of treatment, including surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy.


In the case of lung cancer surgery, it involves the total or partial removal of the tumor from the lymph nodes near the thorax, depending on the type of intervention. There are three types of surgery: segmentectomy, lobectomy and pneumonectomy. The recovery period is several weeks or months.

Radiotherapy consists of eliminating cancer cells by means of high-energy ionizing radiation, which can stop their growth and division. This type of therapy can produce, to a greater or lesser extent, a series of side effects such as tiredness, difficulty in swallowing, coughing and slight respiratory difficulty.

Chemotherapy uses intravenous or oral drugs to destroy tumor cells. It is administered in cycles, alternating periods of treatment and rest. Depending on when it is administered, there are different types of chemotherapy. Chemotherapy drugs, like radiation therapy, can also damage healthy cells in the body.

Cuba has carried out numerous studies on the subject and has a treatment for lung cancer with monoclonal antibodies, CIMAVAX EFG and VAXIRA. Both vaccines offer the possibility of converting advanced cancer into a controllable chronic disease for those patients who are eligible for treatment. The vaccine has shown encouraging results in terms of survival and improvement in the patient’s quality of life, in addition to having no adverse side effects.



A hallucination is a false perception in the absence of a related sensory stimulus. Auditory hallucinations are a subjective, transient and extraordinarily varied mental phenomenon. In a simpler definition, it is a perception without object, where the patient perceives sounds without any real auditory stimulus.

Auditory hallucinations do not constitute a disease in themselves, as they are symptoms of different clinical pictures that can occur in different pathologies and with different degrees of intensity.

Auditory hallucinations can occur in childhood, adolescence and adulthood. Their environment of appearance can be determined by different causes.

It is very difficult to associate this symptom to a specific psychopathology, since hallucinations are a phenomenon that presents great dispersion in terms of origin, development and variety; and although it is the most common type of hallucination in primary psychiatric diseases, the hallucinatory component is not limited to the field of psychosis (although it is the predominant pattern), but is present in different pathologies such as bipolar disorder, neurological and psychiatric diseases (related to psychotic disorders), consumption of drugs such as amphetamine and cocaine, diseases such as Alzheimer, Parkinson and others such as deafness, epilepsy or temporal lobe tumors. Therefore, their value as a specific diagnostic indicator is very limited a priori, since they can appear associated with very diverse diseases. It is important to note that auditory hallucinations secondary to non-psychiatric processes may be accompanied by delusional ideas, unlike primary ones, which may have false memories of which the patient is not aware, therefore, patient fervently believes in the veracity of the memory.

Auditory hallucinations are more frequent in psychotic persons and can come in two forms: verbal, where the patient hears single words, phrases and speeches with an imperative or guilty nuance and non-verbal where the patient hears music, chimes, bells and unstructured noises. They occur with different levels of intensity, from very definite to very diffuse.

Among the types of auditory hallucinations, the following stand out:

  • The patient hears a voice speaking in his/her minds.
  • The patient hears a voice or several voices arguing with each other.
  • The patient hears voices narrating his/her own actions.
  • The patient hears musical tones.
  • The patient hears loud noises.

Hallucinations associated with schizophrenic and depressive psychoses are more elaborate in content and the “voices” heard are often threatening in content. The hallucination forms are different among psychiatric patients, especially those with schizophrenia, and in patients with neurological diseases or substance abuse.

Stress must be taken into account when assessing the causes of auditory hallucinations, as it can be assumed to be the main triggering factor of hallucinatory phenomena. Studies carried out with healthy patients exposed to threatening situations or family losses indicate that it is very likely that they may experience hallucinations when there are stressful circumstances around them. Also, and in a very direct way, the abandonment of psychotropic drugs or the abuse of toxic substances can have a direct influence as triggers of hallucinatory phenomena.

Sometimes auditory hallucinations occur in the absence of any detectable disease. Those with more dopamine (neurotransmitter present in various areas of the brain) are more susceptible to this impact and are more likely to perceive auditory stimuli. Often, patients relate the subjective experience of someone speaking to them and are emotionally negative. Conditions that cause damage to or interference with peripheral sensory pathways can produce auditory hallucinations; for example, acquired deafness is a common cause. Metabolic disorders related to the endocrine system, including thyroid function disorders and Hashimoto’s disease, can produce auditory hallucinations as well.

Other associated medical conditions include chromosomal disorders such as Prader/Willi syndrome, autoimmune disorders, sleep disorders, tumors, epilepsy, and cardiovascular events where the activity involves the temporal, occipital or tempoparietal pathways.

In relation to the origin and development of auditory hallucinations, research suggests or separates what would be antecedent or triggering factors. There are different aspects to take into account, for example, certain genetic predisposition that make the patient more vulnerable to suffer hallucinations, but that must be combined with certain circumstances that would function as triggering elements. Among the psychological factors that could be present in the origin of auditory hallucinations are personality aspects, stressful situations, reinforcement processes and even superstitious beliefs.


As mentioned above, among the various vulnerability models for experiencing acoustic hallucinations, the person must be subjected to highly stressful situations and not possess sufficient resources to cope, feeling helpless or overwhelmed by the experience. Among the stressors are: divorce, job loss, death of family members, unfulfilled goals, childhood traumas and denial of emotions in certain scenarios, as well as isolation where the patient begins to hear voices to compensate for his lack of social interaction.

In conclusion, hearing voices is not exclusively a mental disorder, as they can be experienced in organic diseases as well as in situations related to drug and alcohol consumption and even brain injuries resulting from accidents of any kind. Hallucinations can have a small intensity and become almost inaudible, or they can have a great intensity to the point that the patient cannot sleep or hear other people.

CAIRO – 18 April 2022: Minister of Higher Education and Scientific Research and Acting Health Minister Khaled Abdel Ghaffar praised the depth and strength of Egyptian-Cuban relations.

He emphasized the need to increase cooperation between Egypt and Cuba in the fields of health and scientific research in order to improve healthcare services for citizens of both countries.

Abdel Ghaffar met with the Cuban ambassador to Egypt, Tania Aguiar Fernandez. The meeting was held in order to discuss new ways of cooperation between both countries and all fields relating to health care. During the meeting Abdel Ghaffar asserted that Cuba deserves respect for their high-quality expertise in medicine and public health. He also said that Cubans have a distinguished system of healthcare around the world, which is worth benefiting from when necessary.

The meeting tackled means to promote cooperation in the fields of scientific research and benefit from the cadres and scientific and research expertise via research institutions and centers in both countries, the spokesman said.

Both sides asserted the importance of exchanging scientific and professional expertise between the two countries, he added.

The meeting took up exchanging student missions from the faculties of medicine as well as exchanging doctors to ensure the best outcome, he said.

Meanwhile, Fernandez thanked Abdel Ghaffar for his keenness on cooperating with Cuba to improve the fields of public health and scientific research, asserting her country’s keenness on working together with Egypt in all different domains.




Cuba’s local but efficacious approach to COVID-19 vaccine development is laudable. Cuba has adopted intense production and deployments of country-made vaccines while other Latin American countries look up to foreign aids in containing the pandemic. Vaccine production in Cuba has helped the island nation cater for mass vaccination of Cubans without breaking the national budget while also assisting other countries with the vaccines.

Cuba is the first Latin American country to successfully produce COVID-19 vaccines with 92 percent efficacy recorded in the Abdala vaccine.1 The success of Abdala’s production has gingered further vaccine production including Soberana 1, Soberana 2 with a 91 percent efficacy rate, Soberana Plus, and Mambisa.1 These vaccines have placed Cuba alongside the United Kingdom, the United States, Germany, and India in successful vaccine production. The vaccines are completely manufactured in Cuba making it possible for a country-wide vaccination.

Cuba’s vaccines effectiveness is shown in the fewer death rates in the country. In 2020, at the peak of the pandemic, Cuba recorded 146 deaths in 11, 863 infections while the UK had 1084 deaths per million.1

Benefits and Effectiveness of Cuban Vaccines

COVID-19 Vaccines


The Abdala vaccine is Cuban-made. The vaccine is patterned in a similar approach to the Novavax COVID-19 vaccine and the hepatitis B vaccine. Abdala is different from other vaccines because it’s engineered in cells of yeast and not from coronavirus protein extracts.2 The vaccine is applied in three doses to train the immune system to identify and fight coronavirus whenever it contacts it. Abdala has been tested and found effective in destroying coronavirus when it contacts it. The vaccine has a 92 percent efficacy against coronavirus and protects against diseases and deaths.2

Abdala has been effective in containing COVID-19 in Cuba. Cuban health authorities have combined Abdala and Soberana 2 in driving mass vaccination in the country. The vaccine integration technique also resulted in the successful vaccination of 90 percent of the 11 million Cuban population.2 COVID infection rates in Cuba are declining while local vaccine production is increasing; this has made it possible to sell vaccine doses abroad.

More countries are indicating interest in Abdala. The vaccine is efficacious and has been taken for trials in Iran. While the vaccine is undergoing trial in Iran, it’s been adopted for vaccination in Vietnam, Venezuela, and Nicaragua.2 Argentina and Mexico have also shown interest in using the effective Abdala vaccine.


The Soberana vaccine involves a chemical binding of tetanus toxoid to the virus antigen for COVID-19.3 The vaccine has been tested effective by several medical institutes and centers after the approval for trial testing from the Cuban Center for Quality Control of Medicines, Equipment and Medical Devices in 2020. A non-peer review study has confirmed that Soberana is excellent for neutralizing COVID-19 and gives a complete safety profile.3 The clinical trials for the review showed that the vaccine gives all participants excellent safety profiles one month after the vaccination; increases antibody 20 fold one week after the vaccination and is four times effective for neutralizing the virus.3 Majority of the Cuban population has benefitted from the vaccine. Soberana gives 91.2 percent when boosted with Soberana Plus and is effectively safe to use in three-dose.3

Soberana is gaining traction in international communities. In Iran, the Pasteur Institute has confirmed Soberana and Soberana Plus effective for containing the Delta strain of COVID-19.3 After using the Soberan 2, boosting it with the Soberana plus returns an increase from 71.0 to 92.4 percent.3 According to Reuters on healthcare and pharmaceuticals, a peer-review of the Soberana vaccines will position Cuba among countries like Russia, Germany, and the United States that have successfully produced vaccines with more than 90 percent efficacy.4 This means Soberana is ranked alongside Sputnik V., Moderna, Pfizer, and Novavax with over 90 percent efficacy after peer reviews.

Soberana and the other four Cuban vaccines are locally manufactured. They’re produced on low-tech forms but with a high natural-focused biotechnology process.4 The vaccines are less expensive and fit perfectly for countries that can’t afford the more expensive COVID-19 vaccines. Practical applications of Cuban vaccines to its population have confirmed safety, efficacy, and costs effectiveness which are prime determinants in vaccine selection and purchase.


The Mambisa vaccine is the fifth Cuba-made vaccine with high efficacy. The vaccine is produced by Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology in Cuba.5 Mambisa is made from a combination of produced antigens and gives fewer side effects to users.5 The vaccine is highly beneficial because of its multiple application possibilities without constituting harm to users. Multiple application of Mambisa increases immunity against coronavirus making the vaccine highly demanded.5 Mambisa centered the protein nucleus in generating higher immunity against COVID-19.5 This vaccine is different from others because it’s capable of increasing immunity with a single dose unlike other vaccines that require double or three doses for immune responses. Multiple applications of Mambisa may not be advised because the vaccine is efficacious at a single dose.5

Cuba Medical Milestones

Cuba, an island nation with over 11 million populations has a long history of medical efficacy. While the US sanction on the Cuban economy has affected import-export relations in some ways, Cuba has remained significantly top of other Latin American countries in medical effectiveness. The mass production of the COVID-19 vaccines using local resources and ingenious biotechnologists has gained the country recognition among top nations like the UK, US, and Germany in medical innovation and manufacturing. One important effect of Cuban vaccine production is that the country can protect its million population while also helping other countries by selling the effective Cuba-made COVID-19 vaccines.

The COVID-19 pandemic has come with rising global inflation and economies are reacting negatively. What this portends is that countries might find it difficult to purchase expensive vaccines like Sputnik V., Pfizer, and Moderna or wait for foreign aids. While waiting, the pandemic may badly hit the most vulnerable and further threaten global health and prosperity. Cuban vaccines are safe and less expensive alternatives with testimonials from Cuban populations, Vietnam, Venezuela, and Iran among others.

Cuba’s medical effectiveness dates back to when Fidel Castro invested heavily in Cuban public health. The investment has yielded results in combating cancer and meningitis in Cuba.6 Cuban health research and vaccine production have reduced Cuba’s infant mortality rate to 4.2 percent of 1,000; a lower percentage than obtainable in the US.6

Medical investment in Cuba is people-oriented. Cuban authorities have thus mandated BioCubaFarma, the country’s leading biotechnology center to manufacture vaccines and equipment to contain the COVID-19 pandemic and assist struggling economies with treatments and equipment at this time.7

Cuba High Ranking in COVID-19 vaccination

Medical innovations and productivity is driving Cuba’s mass vaccination. Cuba has reached an all-time milestone of vaccinating 90 percent of its population putting it behind only the United Arab Emirates in vaccination.8 Cuba’s rapid and effective vaccination puts the country ahead of richer countries and stronger economies in Latin America and the Caribbean.8 The secret to this milestone is described as focus and value on local production of vaccines while many countries struggle for more expensive and foreign-made COVID-19 vaccines.8

Cuba has successfully vaccinated 90 percent of its population with children between 2-18 being fully vaccinated.8 Effective vaccination has returned normalcy in Cuba; schools have reopened and tourists are now welcome to the island nation. Although the COVID-19 variants are being reported in the UK and South Africa, Cuba’s vaccines are efficaciously lined up for use as they’ve been tested for effectiveness within and outside the country. It’s safe to say that Cuba-made vaccines are stronger and better alternatives even to COVID variants.

Cuba has achieved a milestone that many rich nations aspire to attain in medical innovation. Medical innovation has translated to excellent manufacturing of world-class COVID-19 vaccines in Cuba including Abdala, Soberana 1, Soberana 2, Soberana Plus, and Mambisa. These vaccines have helped Cuba to near-all population vaccination and have sustained the island’s economy in the face of the pandemic. The vaccines are high in efficacy with Abdala and Soberana reaching more than 90 percent efficacy rates. More countries are beginning to demand Cuba-made vaccines because of the high efficacy, safe profiles, naturalness, and cost-effectiveness making them competitive globally.

Purchasing Cuban vaccines will help countries contain the virus without breaking their treasury on containment. The vaccines are less expensive and available for distribution to any country in the world.



  1. Why Cuba developed its own covid vaccine—and what happened next https://www.bmj.com/content/374/bmj.n1912Cuba’s COVID vaccines: the limited data available suggests they’re highly effective https://theconversation.com/cubas-covid-vaccines-the-limited-data-available-suggests-theyre-highly-effective-172725
  2. Cuba Soberana COVID-19 Vaccine https://www.precisionvaccinations.com/vaccines/cuba-soberana-covid-19-vaccine
  3. Cuba says second COVID-19 vaccine Soberana 2 boasts 91.2% efficacy https://www.reuters.com/business/healthcare-pharmaceuticals/cuba-says-second-covid-vaccine-soberana-2-boasts-912-efficacy-2021-07-09/
  4. Covid-19: Single vaccine dose is 33% effective against variant from India, data show https://www.bmj.com/content/373/bmj.n1346/rr-1
  5. Fidel Castro: A champion of public health https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/health/popular-prolific-populist-56607
  6. Cuba’s National Regulatory Authority & COVID-19: Olga Lidia Jacobo-Casanueva MS Director, Center for State Control of Medicines and Medical Devices (CECMED) https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34516531/
  7. Cuba has vaccinated most against Covid-19, more than most large, rich countries https://www.nbcnews.com/news/latino/cuba-vaccinated-covid-19-large-rich-countries-rcna9498
  1. Cuba has vaccinated most against Covid-19, more than most large, rich countries https://www.nbcnews.com/news/latino/cuba-vaccinated-covid-19-large-rich-countries-rcna9498



Drug and substance abuse has taken a higher toll in recent times. The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime has accounted that over 275 million between 15-64 years of age abuse drugs and substances at least once a day. The higher rates of drug and substance abuse have not been unconnected to ravaging consequences including 20 million substance-induced disability and 8.6 million deaths with 160,235 and 145, 565 deaths caused by drug and alcohol respectively. As more people engage in drug and substance abuse, the rate of addiction has also gone up; birthing the need for proactive drug rehabilitation activities. In drug rehabilitation excellence, Cuba has earned a good mark.

DRUG REHABILITATIONDiego Maradona the great told his lawyers and families to return him to Cuba to continue his rehab activities. The story of the sports legend’s drug addiction topped the news in the 1900s and 2000s. After the suspension from the Italian League in 1991 and the 1994 World Cup, Maradona resumed rehab in Cuba in 2000. The sports star said he was convinced of getting rehab in the Island nation by the belief of the revolutionary, Fidel Castro and Ernesto Guevara known for fighting for revolution in Cuba and leading as a communist leader. Another reason Maradona chose Cuba was because of privacy. He indicated in his interviews in Cuba that in the Island nation, he had more privacy and could work about without having reporters flock around him trying to monitor his rehab process. He considered the heavy presence of reporters in his Argentine rehab place as unnecessary and disturbing. The remarkable thing about the first-class rehab provided to Maradona is that Cuban rehab facilities are top medical industry standard and can take in global leaders, world-class celebs and individuals seeking quality rehab programs.

The rehab program in Cuba includes a three-month rehabilitation with a focus on cognitive behavior and community regime therapies. The rehab includes a behavioral approach that allows patients to develop mechanisms of social control which are needed to repel the attraction to, ‘hard drug, alcohol, and substances. Also, community regime therapy is used. The therapy indicates that patients will live with co-visitors, share ideas with them, express frustrations and aspirations with them. The therapy’s target is ensuring full recovery through inter-persons engagement and communication. The Cuba rehab program runs for three months and at the end of the program, verification and evaluation will be done. The program includes feeding, medical examinations, electrocardiogram, blood tests, clinical and physical treatment, accommodation, psychotherapy, physiotherapy and recreational engagement. The Cuban rehab is one of its kind and widely known globally for effectiveness. The effectiveness depends on the top-rated medical facilities in Cuba; including the oxygen hookup, electronic bed, equipment for those with disabilities, nursing care, well-equipped individual bathroom, fast internet access, laundry and telephonic services. Language translation (Spanish/English) is also provided for guardians of the patients to aid effective communication all through the program.

The Cuban Rehab Approach

The history of drug rehab in Cuba dates back to the 1970s when the famous Ricardo A. Gonzales established the first medical center for treating substance abuse in Cuba. The medical centers became 15 in a short time and attracted the top crop of people from leading sectors in the world to Cuba. Rehab program for treating drug and substance addiction in Cuba has since been based on ‘Cuban approach’ which has not only proven to be efficacious and result-based but also pronounced in the successful treatment of Diego Maradona in Cuba. The approach has been highly used for successful rehab programs in Cuba; being one of the highlights of Cuban medical tourism popular on the global scene. The Cuban approach to rehab is carrying out detoxification and rehabilitation using therapies in serene and natural environments. High profile medical experts are engaged in implementing top-industry medicine and rehabilitative skills. The experts also conduct formative and summative evaluations for the rehab participants to monitor recovery progress. Also, the approach includes allowing patients to talk with others to improve their psychosocial balance and free their minds. The patient undergoes rehabilitation for behavioral changes to overcome addiction. Skills and strategies for coping with cravings, adapting to healthy behaviors, developing intelligence for acceptance and rejection, and controlling withdrawal symptoms.

A multidisciplinary approach is also engaged in Cuba to address the complexity of drug and substance addiction. Multidisciplinary experts are assembled to give rehab patients world-class services in Cuba. The experts include neurologists, psychologists, nurses, medical specialists, and psychiatrists working as a team to give patient-centric rehab services. The multidisciplinary approach is more effective because medical experts in collaborating branches of medicine pool their expertise and intelligence together in ensuring that patients are freed from addiction. Addiction treatment is more psychological and thus the approach isn’t one-way, unlike other medical services. The team identifies what level of damage the addiction has caused and begins to teach adaptive behaviors to break away while also using treatment to correct observable anomalies. The diagnosis from each expert will create a smooth rehab direction that will yield quality behavior-changing treatment for the patient. The recommendation from the experts creates a window for each member of the team to participate in integrative therapies for the patients rather than disjointed and isolated rehab care. Using the Cuban approach of naturality and community therapy coupled with the multidisciplinary approach has positioned rehab care in Cuba on a golden pedestal in global ranking; making Cuba a priority place for treating drug and drink addiction.

North American Rehab Program vs Cuban Rehab Program

The North American rehab programs depend on an individualistic approach. The approach is applicable when rehab patients are given personalized services and not a kind of community regime therapy as it is done in Cuba. The approach is integrated into medical detox and patients can opt for in-facility or home services. The North American rehab approach is flexible and is easily customized to accommodate patients’ differences to bring about effective behavioral changes. Natural coping skills and strategies are also used at the North American rehab programs and this has proven effective because patients can get freedom from drug or alcohol addiction without resorting to drugs. The programs combine human nutrition, yoga services, gardens for meditation, massage, bio-sound therapies, and acupuncture to arrive at a lasting addiction-free treatment. Leading medical experts are engaged in rehab services in North America and they provide effective services from time to time. However, getting rehab treatment in North America costs as high as paying $18,000 for a single-track treatment. In rehabilitative treatment, experts have suggested that patients are likely to recover more on a single-track rehab than a mixed one thus when a patient doesn’t recover at the end of a rehab track, such an individual will have to start all over again—a fresh rehab program. Starting a new rehab program will help the experts working on the case make new diagnoses and adapt strategies for improvement where needed. The point is, rehab service in North America is expensive and not designed for the middle class and average individuals.

The rising death rates and psychological disorders are taking tolls on the lives of people especially the youths and young adults. Thus, affordable and quality rehab is needed to improve lives and correct the increasing anomalies resulting from drug, alcohol, and substance abuse. Unlike North America, Cuba offers specialized rehab programs for addiction and is considerably cheaper and more effective than the services provided in North America. With $26,000, you’ll get a world-class rehab service in Cuba including therapies led by medical industry leaders of ground-breaking research orientation. Cuba’s cost of rehab services isn’t up to 15 percent of what’s obtainable in North America and far outweighs the individual approach rehab programs provided there. Cuba’s record of successful treatment of Diego Maradona has placed the country higher than other countries in a track record of excellence in rehab programs. The cost-effectiveness makes Cuban rehab programs outstanding and easily accessible to individuals and communities.

Also, Cuba offers clean rehab programs free of unethical practices as they apply in North America. Some addiction treating centers in North America operate without a license and run body brokering. Brokering means they take in drug addicts in the guise of giving assisted medical treatments to them and instead, use them for profit-making. Some centers go as high as selling the pee of patients in thousands of dollars and implanting harmful drugs in them. These unethical practices are dangerous and may ruin the integrity of medical practice. In Cuba, only licensed medical centers are allowed to operate by the authorities. Cuba makes a safe addiction treating environment for patients because they do not have to fear getting worse or losing their lives while on the program.

Getting treated for drug and drink addiction requires trust. In Cuba, rehab participants are put at the center of the treatment and tended with utmost trust. Participants are not used for drug racketeering and they consent before the program starts; luring or coercing does not obtain.



CubaHeal in short words

CubaHeal Medical is a global organization specialized in facilitating medical treatments, medical education, in addition to patient and student care in the Republic of Cuba. CubaHeal is a loyal supporter of the Republic of Cuba, the Cuban people, the Cuban revolution, and the Cuban revolutionary leadership.

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