Ritalin-SR-20mg-full.jpg

Trivac HB

Trivac HB is a polyvalent (combined) vaccine containing diphtheria anatoxin, tetanus anatoxin, B. pertussis whole cells and hepatitis B surface antigen. It provides protection against all the above-mentioned pathogens and represents the second ever produced tetravalent vaccine worldwide. Several years of sophisticated research regarding vaccine formulation, potency, safety and tolerability resulted in the successful registration of this medicinal product in 2004. Since then, Trivac HB has been successfully administered in children for the purposes of prevention of the aforementioned infections. This vaccine represents a state-of-art medicinal product due to several reasons. The tetravalent formulation allows the protection against the multiple pathogens, decreasing the need for multiple vaccinations resulting in the better acceptance of the immunization program both by the families and the sanitary personnel. 

A careful process of selection of each component’s formulation resulted in inadequate protection in 97% of tested children, which is an impressive result. Safety of the vaccine was vigilantly monitored during the clinical trial process in each child. Less than half of the children experienced an adverse effect following administration of the vaccine. All reactions were mild in nature, with reversible fever being one of the most frequently reported systemic side effects. The vaccine was very well tolerated in children and the overall safety profile of the vaccine was assessed as non-toxic. Administration of the vaccine resulted in the production of high concentrations of antibodies against each pathogen conferring the high protection to the immunized children.

Quimi-Hib

Haemophilus influenzae type b represented one of the main causes of severe bacterial meningitis in plenty of the countries worldwide until the introduction of a vaccine against this pathogen. The vaccine production includes the expensive process of extracting the capsular antigen prior to conjugation. Cuba has made an effort to develop a less costly method of vaccine production that would keep the vaccine potency. Cuban experts proposed the model of production of a synthetic bacterial antigen that would exhibit the same efficacy and would have an acceptable safety profile.  

The safety, tolerability and preliminary efficacy of Quimi-Hib were investigated in two major Phase I clinical trials that were double-blinded and randomized in order to produce the highest level of evidence for obtained results. Populations investigated were adults and children (4-5 years old). Studies were conducted on healthy volunteers. The primary endpoints were safety and tolerability of the vaccine. The occurrence of local and systemic adverse events was monitored following the administration of the vaccine during 72h post-administration. The safety profile of the vaccine included the anticipated risks that were mild to moderate in nature and completely reversible. Vaccine efficacy was monitored using the contemporary methods of immunology for the screening of vaccine immunogenicity. The results obtained demonstrated high immunogenicity of the vaccine, meaning that the efficacy of the Quimi-Hib was comparable and equivalent to the traditional vaccine. With this vaccine, Cuba has successfully resolved the issue of high complexity and costs that was the main issue of the traditional vaccine. Quimi-Hib represents the innovative approach to vaccine development. Excellent results resulted in the registration of the vaccine in Cuba. This particular vaccine is now the part of the countries’ National Immunization Program.

Gavac

The incidence of tick-born diseases is increasing worldwide in both humans and domestic animals. It has been estimated that approximately half of all ticks are Boophilus species. Therefore, an effective prevention of tick-borne diseases should target the control of infestation by this specific species. Cuba has developed an efficient method for the protection against tock-borne diseases, which directly resulted in significant reduction of tick-related infestations. This vaccine offers the cost-effective method for the prevention of tick-born diseases that is benevolent for the environment. The development of the so called Bm86 gut antigen, which is the active ingredient of the Gavac vaccine, has brought the feasible solution to control the tick infestations. The investment of knowledge, expertise, and funds to develop such a sophisticated method of prevention in Cuba will also contribute to further research and development of other molecular technologies towards the discovery of new methods for inhibition of tick infestation.

Heberbiovac HB

Heberbiovac HB represents a vaccine developed for the prevention of hepatitis B infection. This vaccine demonstrates also a therapeutic potential and can be used as an adjunctive treatment for patients suffering from hepatitis B infection. This vaccine was developed in Cuba according to the recommendations tailored by the World Health Organization. The vaccine contains hepatitis B surface antigen, an active ingredient responsible for effective prevention of the hepatitis B infection. This vaccine has also shown efficacy in the treatment of both acute and chronic forms of the disease, as well as in the management of hepatocellular carcinoma. Interestingly, when receiving the vaccine, 95% of newborns of infected mothers are protected during life. 

Heberviron

Heberviron was developed in Cuba for the treatment of hepatitis C infection. Not only that it has a significant cure rate, but it also exhibits a very good protection against the recurrence of the infection. The treatment duration when using Heberviron lasts for 7 days. This is quite important since the shortened treatment duration reduce the risk of serious side effects that may occur with the use of this drug. The combination of interferon and antiviral drug ribavirin as the active ingredients of Heberviron allow the better treatment outcomes and increase the success rate of treatment against the hepatitis C infection. Heberviron represents the state-of-art product of Cuban drug research and development.

Heberon Alfa R

Cuba has an advanced biotechnology industry. The development of interferon alfa-2b designed for intramuscular, intralesional, intravenous or subcutaneous injection confirms this statement. Heberon Alfa R structure is adapted so that the drug can be used in different modes of administration as stated above. Heberon Alfa R contains anti-tumor and anti-virus properties. It is intended for use in patients suffering from serious diseases such as chronic hepatitis B and C, HIV-induced Kaposi’s Sarcoma, malignant melanoma and many other neoplastic disorders. This drug is also approved for the use in children, where administration of Heberon Alfa R was proven safe and effective in children and adolescents.

Heberkinasa

Heberkinasa was created using the recombinant technology in order toprovoke a rapid and more effective thrombus degradation. Heberkinasacauses thrombus dissolution and recanalization of the affected vessel. The drug also prevents the tissue affected by ischemia to undergo necrosis. It has been demonstrated in clinical trials that recombinant streptokinase restores the ventricular function of the heart following myocardial infarction. The drug decreases the risk of pulmonary embolism and facilitates the elimination of embolus. The formulation of this drug does not contain immunogenic albumins, which directly reduces the risk of hypersensitivity and immune-mediated reactions, improving the drug’s safety profile.

Antirretrovirales

Cuba produces the so-called highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). This treatment is intended for those infected with the HIV virus and other less common retroviruses. The formulation of the drug is specifically designed to reduce the side effects of conventional HAART drugs. This formulation reduces the abnormalities in blood cells and reduces the trend of hemoglobin depletion during treatment, which improves the overall tolerability profile of the drugs. Cuban antiretrovirals also have need shown to increase the number of virus-free CD4 lymphocytes. Decreased mortality and mortality from HIV infection has been also demonstrated in clinical trials.

Hebertrans

Hebertrans is a highly sophisticated product containing the extract of leucocytes derived from human leucocytes that are used as the modulator of the defective immune response. The main characteristic of this medicinal product is that Hebertrans produces no side effects. It may be used in patients with defect immune system such as those receiving cytotoxic cancer treatment, those with immune deficiency (both acquired or congenital) or patients with autoimmune and allergic conditions. Hebertrans leads to the effective stabilization and normalization of the immune response.

Heberitro

Heberitro is a recombinant human erythropoietin. It stimulates the natural production and maturation of red blood cells, increasing the mass of red blood cells within the bloodstream. It is effective in various types of anemia caused by iron depletion. Its’ effectivity has been especially demonstrated in patients suffering from chronic kidney failure, those on HAART anti-HIV therapy, as well as in patients undergoing radiotherapy.

Hebervital

The sophisticated technology in Cuba allowed the development of so-called granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF). Hebervital directly increases the production and maturation of granulocytes, especially neutrophils. Neutropenia is a serious risk in a patient receiving chemotherapy and may lead to the development of severe infections, even sepsis. GCSF successfully increases the number of granulocytes necessary for the effective immune response against infections. Hebervital directly decreases the risk profile of chemotherapy by mitigating the risk of severe neutropenia or bone marrow failure.

LeucoCIM

LeucoCIM is a granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) used for the treatment of neutropenic patients. Drug use has been proven beneficial in patients having myelosuppression following cytotoxic treatment, patients with myeloid leukemia and those with neutropenia caused by HIV/AIDS. The drug also prevents the development of bone marrow suppression in patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation.

REFERENCES:

  • Gilda Torano et al. Phase I Clinical Evaluation of a Synthetic Oligosaccharide-Protein Conjugate Vaccine against Haemophilus influenzae Type b in Human Adult Volunteers. Clinical Vaccine and Immunology. September 2006 vol. 13 no. 9 1052-1056.
  • Dania Bacardí et al. Preclinical safety testing of the Quimi-Hib® vaccine adjuvanted with aluminum phosphate during product development. Biotecnología Aplicada 2013;30:118-124.
  • Néstor S. Expósito, Daniel Cardoso, Eduardo Martínez, Yanelis Herrera, Karelia Cosme, Pablo A. Díaz4, Yayrí C. Prieto, Zoe Núñez, Mabel Izquierdo, Orestes Mayo, Joel Pérez, Luis C Hidalgo. TrivacHB: A Cuban Polyvalent Vaccine. Biotecnología Aplicada 2006; Vol.23, No.2.
  • Jose de la Fuente et al. A ten-year review of commercial vaccine performance for control of tick infestations on cattle. Animal Health Research 2007. 8(1):23-8.
  • Castañeda Guillot C, et al. Long term study of the treatment with recombinant alfa 2b interferon in chronic active hepatitis due to B virus in children and adolescents. G E N. 1994 Oct-Dec;48(4):219-25.
  • CECMED. Resumen De Las Características Del Producto. Estreptoquinasa recombinante. Last revision: 27 Dec 2013.

Capture-d’écran-2019-05-26-à-14.41.16.png

Cuba healthcareCuba Healthcare is for everyone. Gallup polls in other cities from Latin American and have found that on average only 42% believe healthcare is accessible. A lower, but still high, percentage (75 percent) say they have faith in their country’s healthcare system & about the same proportion (76 percent) say they are happy with their personal health. This is a smaller proportion, however, than the average in other cities from Latin American, where 85%  say they satisfied with their personal health, according to Gallup.

 

Back in 1978, a conference was held in Almaty (formerly Alma-Ata), the city in Kazakhstan where the one of the most significant public health declarations emerged. One of the most significant excerpts of the Declaration was the profound role of primary health care in establishing the concept of “Health for All”.  According to the World Health Organization (WHO), an adequate availability (adequate supply of healthcare), accessibility (adequate distribution of healthcare) and acceptability (treating all patients with dignity) of a healthcare system is required to ensure the best possible health outcomes in a population.  Cuban healthcare system is established to meet the aforementioned standards, and by many criteria, this system is currently unique and one of the most efficient healthcare systems worldwide (1).

National Cuba Healthcare Policy Goals

Back in 1983, Cuba introduced a Public Health Law establishing basic principles of the healthcare organization.  The main characteristic of this healthcare system is that healthcare represents a right that is available equally to all and is completely free of charge (2).  One of the major differences between Cuban and American healthcare principles is that in Cuba, healthcare is the responsibility of the state.  Additionally, the law promotes global cooperation of health systems and its professionals.

On the contrary, a profit-driven healthcare system in the United States results in great imbalances of knowledge and quality of health services, and more importantly, creates a population that cannot afford a proper healthcare leading to healthcare quality being unpredictable and dependent on the financial state of each individual (3).

Health Outcomes

National Health System of Cuba, that has been founded on a very effective primary health care, is producing impressive results.  Rates of immunization are amongst highest in the world.  Over 98 percent of children are vaccinated against 13 illnesses by the age of 2 (4).  Antenatal care is provided to 95 percent of pregnant women and mortality rate of infants is 5 per 1000 births.  Control of blood pressure at least once per year is available to the entire population (5).  As a result of exceptional healthcare outcomes, Cuba is officially at the top of the list of countries that meet the United Nation’s Millennium Development Goals, focusing on the social components of healthcare services.

Primary Healthcare

The pillar stone of Cuban healthcare system is the primary healthcare institutions.  A community-based polyclinic, covering a population of 30000 to 60000 individuals represents a centerpiece of primary health care.  These polyclinics serve as a hub for family doctor and nurse practices, where each family doctor covers a population of approximately 600 to 800 individuals.  The polyclinics are also centers for education and training of the new physicians, nurses and other healthcare sciences students.  Interestingly, Cuba was one of the first countries worldwide which introduced the concept of family care physicians (6).  This model of healthcare organization increased the prevention of chronic conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, heart failure, obstructive pulmonary disorders, and significantly decreased the need for “high-tech“ technologies in diagnosing and treating diseases (7).

The polyclinics are advancing even today.  The goal is to extend the range of health services at the primary healthcare level.  Polyclinics are being equipped with ultrasound, X-rays, endoscopy, emergency care, immunization, rehabilitation services and many other (1).  Approximately 800 to 1000 patients use the services daily.

Drug Research and Development

Cuba is investing a significant amount of funds into drug research and development.  The approximately US $1 billion investment in pharmaceutical and biotech industry resulted in the production of innovative medicines, vaccines and diagnostic kits that are now being sold internationally (8).  The most significant achievements of drug development will be discussed here.

SEROGROUP B MENINGOCOCCAL VACCINE

Cuba developed and registered this vaccine back in 1989 in order to prevent childhood meningitis.  The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) registered this exceptional medicinal product only recently, in 2014, when it was manufactured by Pfizer.

HEBERFERON

The drug has been developed in the CIGB (Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology) of Havana. It is a combination of two interferons. The result of its complex mechanism of action is tumor growth suppression, particularly basal cell carcinoma (CBC) no matter of its size, location and subtype. Although most of the skin carcinomas can efficiently be cured surgically, in some cases, it’s not that simple (face- surgical procedures are often mutilating causing severe reduction of the quality of patient’s life).

HEBERPROT- P

The drug was registered in Cuba in 2006 and, since then, 15 more countries registered it, and more than 100.000 patients around the world have received the treatment with incredible results. The target patients are those with chronic diabetic ulcers resistant to other modalities of treatment (high amputation risk). By its structure, Heberprot-P is an epidermal growth factor (EGF), and it’s administered by injection, locally.

NIMOTUZUMAB

According to the clinical research, Nimotuzumab, due its safety profile, is an excellent ad-on therapy for the patients diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). The study published back in 2009, clearly demonstrated that Nimotuzumab, combined with radiotherapy, triples the 30-month survival rate compared to the group of patients who received radiotherapy only.

CIMAVAX-EGF VACCINE

1994 was the year when Cuban Center for Molecular Immunology started investigating this medicinal product for the purpose of treating non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).  Studies have shown a significant increase in survival of NSCLC patients.  Earlier this year, more than twenty years after the product was developed in Cuba, Roswell Park Cancer Institute in Buffalo, New York, decided to initiate the clinical trial in order to investigate the efficacy and safety of this vaccine for the treatment of patients suffering from NSCLC.

RACOTUMOMAB

This interesting vaccine received approval in Latin American countries back in 2013, following completion of phase II/III study involving patients with advanced and progressive NSCLC.  Racotumomab showed a significant increase in survival of patients suffering from end-stage NSCLC.  This promising medicinal product is being evaluated in a multinational phase III study aiming to investigate the effects of this vaccine on health outcomes in NSCLC patients (NCT01460472).

MELAGENINA PLUS (VITILIGO)

The drug is an alcoholic extract from human placenta. The Melagenina Plus lotion is applied once a day to the affected areas. It causes the repigmentation by stimulating melanocytes in a chronic region of the skin (white patches). Available all around the world for more than 20 years, it claimed the title of miraculous vitiligo drug.

In conclusion, it appears from the above that the industry in the United States still does not possess adequate mechanisms in providing innovative medicinal products when compared with Cuba.

HIV/AIDS, EBOLA OUTBREAK

Cuba was the first country in the world recognized by the WHO for eliminating mother-to-child transmission of HIV and syphilis (9).  According to the Center for Disease Control (DCD), up until 2014 in the United States, there were 5419 deaths among the population who acquired HIV through perinatal transmission.  Recently, Cuba has sent a large group of physicians in order to fight the Ebola outbreak.

These were just some of the characteristics of Cuban healthcare system that continues to impress and produce enviable results.  There are plenty of lessons to learn from Cubans in terms of proper healthcare organization with only one goal: to ensure a healthier future.

healthcare, cuba healthcare, Cuba healthcare

Bibliography

  1. Cuba’s primary health care revolution: 30 years on. http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/86/5/08-030508/en/. [Online] [Cited: February 24, 2018.]
  2. Ley No. 41. Ley de la Salud Pública. http://www.parlamentocubano.cu/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=257:ley-no-41-salud-publica&catid=46:leyes&Itemid=79. [Online] [Cited: February 24, 2018.]
  3. Gray, Bradford H. For-Profit Enterprise in Health Care. s.l. : Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US), 1986.
  4. Eradication of poliomyelitis in Cuba: a historical perspective. P, Más Lago. s.l. : Bull World Health Organ, 1999, Vol. 77(8). 681-7.
  5. Caring for Them from Birth to Deat. C, Perez. s.l. : Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2008.
  6. Health for all: a dream realized in Cuba. CW, Keck. s.l. : Medical and Health Annual. Chicago, IL: Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc., 1994. 357–362.
  7. he Cuban health system: responsiveness to changing population needs and demands. SM, Santana. s.l. : World Dev, 1987, Vol. 15(1). 113–125.
  8. The Curious Case of Cuba. Keck, C. William. s.l. : Am J Public Health, 2012, Vol. 102(8). e13–e22.
  9. WHO VALIDATES ELIMINATION OF MOTHER-TO-CHILD TRANSMISSION OF HIV AND SYPHILIS IN CUBA. s.l. : Saudi Med J, 2015, Vol. 36(8). 1018-9.



In short words


CubaHeal Medical is a global organization specialized in facilitating medical treatments, medical education, in addition to patient and student care in the Republic of Cuba. CubaHeal is a loyal supporter of the Republic of Cuba, the Cuban people, the Cuban revolution, and the Cuban revolutionary leadership.




Subscribe


Sign up for CUBAHEAL newsletter to receive all the news offers and discounts.



CUBAHEAL | All rights reserved | Developed and designed by Moustaide CO