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Our journey through life brings about several changes, particularly as we transition into our senior years. A significant part of this transformation involves shifts in our nutritional needs. For seniors, a diet rich in essential vitamins and minerals becomes more important than ever. However, it can sometimes be challenging to meet these nutritional needs solely through diet due to factors like decreased appetite, altered taste and smell, difficulty chewing, reduced digestion and absorption, or specific health conditions. In such cases, understanding the role of certain vitamins and considering supplementation becomes essential. In this article, we delve into the realm of recommended vitamins for seniors.

Recommended vitamins for seniors

1. Vitamin B12:
Among the recommended vitamins for seniors, Vitamin B12 holds a prominent place. Also known as cobalamin, it is essential for nerve function, DNA synthesis, and the formation of red blood cells. Many seniors may struggle to absorb enough Vitamin B12 from food due to reduced stomach acid production. Symptoms of low B12 levels can range from anemia to neurological changes and cognitive difficulties. For adults over 50, it’s recommended to get most of their B12 from fortified foods or supplements.

2. Vitamin D:
Another highly recommended vitamin for seniors is Vitamin D, known as the “sunshine vitamin,” as our bodies naturally produce it when our skin is exposed to sunlight. Crucial for calcium and phosphorus absorption, it promotes bone health and strength. However, many seniors may struggle to produce or synthesize enough Vitamin D due to limited sunlight exposure and decreased ability to convert sunlight into Vitamin D with age. As such, Vitamin D supplementation is often recommended for older adults.

3. Calcium:
While not a vitamin, calcium plays a vital role alongside Vitamin D and is a recommended nutrient for seniors. Increased age heightens the risk of osteoporosis and fractures, making adequate calcium intake imperative. Besides dairy products, leafy green vegetables, and certain fish, seniors might need a calcium supplement, particularly postmenopausal women.

4. Vitamin C:
Vitamin C, or ascorbic acid, is a potent antioxidant and a recommended vitamin for seniors. It plays a role in forming blood vessels, cartilage, muscle, and collagen in bones, and aids in the healing process and iron absorption. Furthermore, Vitamin C boosts immune function, which can become less efficient as we age. Those with a limited diet or certain medical conditions might benefit from Vitamin C supplementation.

5. Vitamin E:
Vitamin E, another recommended vitamin for seniors, is a potent antioxidant that helps protect cells from damage caused by free radicals, substances that the body produces when converting food into energy. This vitamin is essential for immune function, cell signaling, and metabolic processes. Although deficiencies are rare, seniors with certain conditions like fat malabsorption syndromes may benefit from Vitamin E supplementation.

6. Folate or Folic Acid:
Folate (or its synthetic version, folic acid), a type of B-vitamin, plays a crucial role in forming red and white blood cells, converting carbohydrates into energy, and producing DNA and RNA. Its role in brain health makes it an important recommended vitamin for seniors.

In conclusion, as a senior, paying attention to vitamin intake is pivotal for maintaining optimal health. A well-rounded diet is the primary source of these recommended vitamins for seniors, but supplements can help fulfill needs for specific vitamins, especially Vitamin B12, Vitamin D, and calcium. However, it’s crucial to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any supplementation regimen, to consider individual needs and rule out potential interactions with other medications or health conditions.

Read about Elderly care in Cuba

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    Stem cell transplant, also known as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), is a groundbreaking medical procedure that has the potential to cure various life-threatening diseases. This article aims to provide an informative and accessible guide to stem cell transplant for non-English speakers. Read on to discover what stem cell transplant entails, its potential applications, and the benefits it offers.

    Stem Cell Transplant

    What is a Stem Cell Transplant?

    Stem cell transplant involves the infusion of healthy stem cells into a patient’s body to replace damaged or diseased cells. Stem cells are unique cells with the remarkable ability to develop into different types of specialized cells, including blood cells, immune cells, and organ-specific cells. This regenerative capacity makes them invaluable in treating a wide range of medical conditions.

    Applications of Stem Cell Transplant:

    1. Cancer Treatment: Stem cell transplant plays a crucial role in treating various types of cancer, including leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. It enables high-dose chemotherapy, radiation, or both, to destroy cancer cells, while healthy stem cells are transplanted to restore the patient’s damaged bone marrow.
    2. Genetic Disorders: Certain genetic disorders, such as sickle cell anemia, thalassemia, and immune deficiencies, can be effectively treated with stem cell transplant. By introducing healthy stem cells, the defective ones can be replaced, potentially providing a long-term cure.
    3. Autoimmune Diseases: Stem cell transplant offers hope for individuals with severe autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus. The procedure aims to rebuild the immune system, potentially halting or reversing the progression of the disease.

    The Stem Cell Transplant Process:

    1. Pre-transplant Evaluation: Before undergoing a stem cell transplant, patients undergo a thorough evaluation to determine their eligibility and assess potential risks. This evaluation includes medical history review, physical examination, blood tests, and imaging studies.
    2. Stem Cell Collection: Stem cells can be obtained from the patient’s own body (autologous transplant) or a compatible donor (allogeneic transplant). The collection process typically involves either extracting stem cells from the patient’s bone marrow or mobilizing them into the bloodstream using growth factors.
    3. Conditioning Regimen: Patients receive high-dose chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy to destroy diseased cells and suppress the immune system, creating space for the transplanted stem cells to engraft successfully.
    4. Stem Cell Infusion: The collected stem cells are infused into the patient’s bloodstream, similar to a blood transfusion. Over time, these stem cells travel to the bone marrow and start producing healthy blood cells.
    5. Recovery and Follow-up: Following the transplant, patients require meticulous care and monitoring to prevent infections, manage side effects, and support their recovery. Regular follow-up visits with healthcare professionals are essential to ensure the success of the transplant.
    6. Benefits and Considerations: Stem cell transplant offers several advantages, such as the potential for a cure, improved quality of life, and reduced reliance on long-term medications. However, it is crucial to consider potential risks and complications, including graft-versus-host disease, infection, organ damage, and the need for an appropriate donor match.


    Stem cell transplant has revolutionized the field of medicine, offering hope to patients with previously untreatable conditions. From cancer to genetic disorders and autoimmune diseases, this remarkable procedure has transformed lives worldwide. Understanding the process, its applications, and the benefits it offers can empower patients and their families to make informed decisions about their treatment options. If you or a loved one is facing a serious medical condition, we encourage you to explore the potential of stem cell transplant by checking out our Stem Cell Treatment program. Our experienced medical professionals are ready to provide personalized guidance and support on your journey towards improved health and well-being.

      Have an inquiry about this program? Please reach us by filling out the following online form:

      Melagenina Plus is a product that has been developed and is mainly distributed in Cuba for the treatment of vitiligo. It’s an ointment that, when applied to the skin, is believed to stimulate the production of melanin, the pigment responsible for skin color.

      Melagenina plus

      1. What is Vitiligo?

        Vitiligo is a skin condition that causes the loss of skin color in blotches. This happens when the cells that produce melanin, known as melanocytes, die or cease functioning. Vitiligo affects all races but may be more noticeable in people with darker skin. The precise cause of vitiligo remains unknown, but it may be an autoimmune condition.

      2. What is Melagenina Plus?

        Melagenina Plus is a topical product derived from human placenta and calcium chloride. It’s designed to treat vitiligo by stimulating melanocytes to reproduce and increase the production of melanin, the pigment that gives the skin its color.

      3. How to Use Melagenina Plus:

        Melagenina Plus is typically applied once a day. The general instructions are to massage it gently into the affected areas of the skin until it’s absorbed. No sunlight exposure is necessary to activate the product, and it can be used on any part of the body, even sensitive areas. It’s recommended to avoid using soap on the treated areas for three hours after application to let the product fully absorb.

      4. Effectiveness:

        Large number of patients have reported seeing improvements. The product is effective in 86% of cases, according to its creators. However, individual results can greatly vary, and it’s important to discuss any treatment plan with CubaHeal team.

      5. Safety and Side Effects:

        According to the manufacturer, Melagenina Plus is safe and side effects are rare. The most common side effect when they do occur is skin irritation. This product should not be used by people with a history of allergic reactions to the product, or who have skin cancer. As with any medication, it is always best to consult with a healthcare professional before starting a new treatment.

      6. Availability:

        Melagenina Plus is primarily available in Cuba. It is always important to make sure you are purchasing from a trusted source, to avoid counterfeit products.

      In conclusion, Melagenina Plus represents a potentially promising solution for those battling vitiligo. This unique product, born out of innovative Cuban science, could offer a new pathway to managing this condition, and perhaps restore not just the color of your skin, but your confidence and peace of mind as well.

      However, as we’ve noted, individual results can greatly vary and it’s important to have open, informed discussions about your treatment options. That’s why our team is here to help. We are more than ready to answer your questions, address your concerns, and guide you towards the best possible approach for your unique needs.

      Remember, overcoming vitiligo isn’t a journey you have to embark on alone. We’re here for you, ready to provide the support, information, and care you need. Don’t hesitate to reach out to us. After all, your well-being is our number one priority. Contact us today, and let’s take the first steps on your path towards vitiligo management together.


      Useful link: Vitiligo treatment program

      On May 23, Tuesday, Cuba marked the 60th anniversary of its global health assistance initiative, a program that has extended its solidarity to countries worldwide. This initiative officially commenced on the same date in 1963, when Cuba dispatched its inaugural medical brigade to Algeria, freshly freed from French rule, as France had withdrawn its medical staff following Algeria’s victorious independence struggle.

      However, prior to this, a small contingent of Cuban doctors had been dispatched to Chile in 1960 in response to an earthquake that had occurred there.

      From that point forward, the scope of Cuba’s health solidarity has experienced significant growth. Cuban healthcare professionals have offered their services to over three million people, performing over 16,000 surgical procedures in 165 countries. These professionals have bravely ventured into perilous areas where even local doctors and healthcare workers have been apprehensive to approach, including regions affected by cholera outbreaks and the fearsome Ebola epidemic in Africa. It’s approximated that through this global healthcare initiative, Cuba has helped save over eight million lives globally.

      Various countries, primarily in Latin America, Africa, Asia, and the Caribbean, owe a great debt of gratitude to Cuba for this priceless assistance. Currently, 22,632 Cuban health professionals are serving in about 57 countries. Alongside the Cuban health workers stationed in St Vincent and the Grenadines, seven specialists have recently arrived from Cuba to assist with the setup and operation of new MRI equipment at the Modern Medical Complex in Georgetown.

      Despite these humanitarian efforts, the United States has criticized this assistance, labeling it as “human trafficking”. It’s a unique case of alleged “trafficking” that has, paradoxically, saved countless lives and provided medical care to those who otherwise would not have access to it.

      I had read about the pediatrician who was part of the brigade of 32 healthcare professionals who traveled to Turkey on February 11th to provide medical assistance to those affected by the violent earthquake that struck that country and Syria earlier that month. It was not difficult to identify her among her companions, not only because of the affectionate and heartfelt greeting that the Cuban Minister of Health, Dr. José Ángel Portal Miranda, greeted her with, as is his custom, but also because of her youth and her excited face during the official reception of the brigade. A few minutes later, I was able to speak with her:

      “An experience like this tests you in every way, the professional part, as a doctor; the human part; the physical part, it is very strong. It is a beautiful experience, but strong and grateful to have been able to participate in the mission, grateful to have been able to go to help the Turkish people who were in very bad conditions, there in the city where we arrived.”

      “And it touches each one of us because it is one thing to go to work as a doctor and it is another thing to see the conditions in which these people live, the conditions in which you treat these people, often for days without medical care, since the earthquake itself, people who have lost a lot, lost family members, lost material goods. Above all, they are people with an enormous human quality, in spite of the situation in which they lived, they always showed gestures of affection, of gratitude, of humility. They gave us what little they had, often without having anything, and this was evident from the highest officials to the people with the lowest cultural level, it was shocking but really beautiful,” she added.

      “Children who lived in tents, who had lost their families, children who had only one neighbor, one relative, it is hard, it is very hard. Many times I had to take care of them in tents, in their homes, people who had pitched their tents on the edge of the collapse of their homes, who had lost practically everything, it is hard, hard, hard. And the children’s part even more so when you come across these cases”.

      “I had no experience outside of Cuba, my professional experience had always been in the country, and this was a school in every way, you could say, a wonderful experience, but also a school”.

      “The most striking thing was the Turkish people’s knowledge of Cuba, their gratitude to the Cuban people. For them to mention Cuba, to tell them that you are a doctor, to tell them that you are a Cuban doctor, is something enormous for them. The children, the elderly, the doctors, the nurses, the health workers, everybody was very grateful to us at all times, and without their help we would not have been able to do the work, because of the language, because of the terrain. We were really able to work hand in hand with them, and I think it was partly because of this affection, this appreciation, this knowledge that they have of Cuba. They love Cuba, they love the Cuban people.

      These were the words of Dr. Alemy Paret Rodríguez, a first-degree pediatrician and teacher. Unbeknownst to this journalist, she works at the Roberto Rodríguez Teaching Hospital in Morón, the city where she lives. The surprise when I arrived from Turkey was that that morning I would be interviewing a beautiful doctor of whom I already had references, but without knowing that we were compatriots. Morón in Turkey.

      When asked what she planned to do, she replied with the same honesty as in the previous questions: “Rest, I need to rest, go see my family, I haven’t seen them for a month, and most of all rest, I need to rest.


      Ministry of Public Health of Cuba
      Medical Collaboration
      Medical Collaboration
      The Modern Poetry (La Moderna Poesía) – Morón, Cuba
      People from Morón – Cuba.

      Surgical myocardial revascularization is the most frequent cardiac intervention and one of the greatest achievements in surgery. It consists of bypassing the blood flow through native coronary arteries with high-grade stenosis or occlusion that cannot be solved by angioplasty with the introduction of an endovascular prosthesis. 


      Cardiovascular diseases can manifest itself in many forms: high blood pressure, coronary artery disease, valvular disease, stroke and arrhythmias. 

      Major risk factors for cardiovascular disease include: 

      • High blood pressure; 
      • High cholesterol; 
      • Diabetes; 
      • Obesity and overweight; 
      • Smoking; 
      • Sedentary lifestyle; 
      • Genetic diseases; 
      • Age; 
      • Alcoholism. 

      Stress is considered a contributing factor to cardiovascular risk, as stressful situations increase heart rate and blood pressure, increasing the heart’s need for oxygen. At times of stress, the nervous system releases more hormones causing blood pressure to rise, which can damage the inner lining of the arteries. Stress also increases the concentration of clotting factors in the blood, which can lead to the formation of a blood clot. 


      The traditional surgical myocardial revascularization consists of a thoracotomy through a midline sternotomy. A pump must be used to maintain extracorporeal circulation between the heart and lung, which allows the heart to be stopped and emptied of blood in order to achieve maximum surgical exposure and facilitate the completion of vascular anastomoses. Stopping the heart also significantly reduces myocardial oxygen demand. 

      Before starting cardiopulmonary bypass, the patient must receive a very high dose of heparin to prevent clotting in the circuit through which the blood will circulate out of the body. The aorta is then clamped and the heart is stopped with an injection of cardioplegic solution which also contains substances that help myocardial cells tolerate ischemia and reperfusion. The patient’s temperature is also reduced by a pump-dependent mechanism to achieve the same ends. 

      Once the vascular anastomoses are completed, the aorta is unclamped, allowing perfusion of the coronary arteries with oxygenated blood, which restores cardiac activity. Heparin anticoagulation is reversed with protamine. Despite cardioprotective measures, stopping the heart is not without risk; these events are treated with conventional measures, such as pacemaker placement, defibrillation, and administration of inotropics. 


      The main complications and disadvantages of traditional myocardial revascularization are: 

      • Sternotomy; 
      • Extracorporeal circulation. 

      The median sternotomy is fairly well tolerated, however it takes 4 to 6 weeks to heal. Infections of the incision can cause mediastinitis or sternal osteomyelitis, which can be very difficult to treat. 

      Extracorporeal circulation causes several complications, such as: 

      • Hemorrhage; 
      • Organ dysfunction; 
      • Neuropsychiatric effects; 
      • Stroke. 

      Post-pump bleeding is a problem caused by a variety of factors, including hemodilution, heparin use, platelet dysfunction generated by pump exposure, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and induced hypothermia. 

      Organ dysfunction may be due to a systemic inflammatory response caused by the heart-lung machine. This response may cause organ dysfunction in some system or apparatus such as the lungs, kidneys, brain, among others.  

      Other frequent complications related to surgical myocardial revascularization include: 

      • Focal myocardial ischemia; 
      • Global myocardial ischemia; 
      • Arrhythmias. 

      The mortality rate depends mainly on the patient’s previous state of health, but the experience of the medical staff and the conditions of the institution are very important.  Newer techniques attempt to limit the complications of traditional surgical myocardial revascularization by: 

      • Avoiding the need for cardiopulmonary bypass, i.e. surgical myocardial revascularization without a heart-lung bypass pump. This pump can be avoided in selected patients by means of techniques that allow the surgeon to revascularize the heart without stopping its beating. 
      • Avoiding median sternotomy (minimally invasive myocardial revascularization surgery). This technique is somewhat difficult and may not be possible when several anastomoses must be performed, particularly when they involve vessels behind the heart.  

      Coronary revascularization is a therapeutic intervention that, although not without risk, is fully established and therefore included in all treatment strategies for patients with coronary artery disease. 

      You may need this procedure if you have a blockage in one or more coronary arteries. The coronary arteries are the blood vessels suppling the heart with oxygen and nutrients carried in the blood. 

      When one or more of the coronary arteries become partially or completely blocked, the heart does not receive enough blood. This is called ischemic heart disease or coronary artery disease and can cause chest pain (angina). 

      Coronary artery bypass surgery may be used to improve circulation to the heart, although  specialists usually first try to treat it with medication, dietary changes or angioplasty and stenting. 

      Coronary artery disease is different for everyone. The way it is diagnosed and treated also varies. 

      Recovery from surgery takes time and in some cases the full benefits may not be felt until 3 months after surgery. In most cases, patients who undergo coronary artery bypass surgery, the grafts remain open and work well for many years. It is recommended to take measures to reduce the risk of a relapse for example: 

      • Not smoking; 
      • Eating a healthy cardio diet; 
      • Control arterial hypertension; 
      • Control glycemia and cholesterol. 

      Among the risks that a person may have for needing long-term cardiovascular surgery are high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia (elevated lipid levels).  

      Risk factors: 

      • High blood pressure; 
      • High cholesterol; 
      • Diabetes; 
      • Obesity and overweight; 
      • Smoking, alcoholism, drug addiction; 
      • Sedentary lifestyle; 
      • Inherited genetic diseases; 
      • Age 

      It is never too late to start improving your cardiovascular health. Some risk factors can be controlled but others cannot, but if you eliminate bad habits and start living a healthy lifestyle, you are likely to reduce your risk of heart disease.  

      If you suffer from high blood pressure, obesity or any of the risk factors mentioned above, we recommend you to visit a specialist immediately so that you can prevent cardiovascular disease. CHMT offers you the possibility of accessing innovative medical methods through which you will be able to obtain a safe, effective and personalized treatment. 

      Cuba has a highly developed health care system, which can be compared to those of more industrialized countries. The Cuban health care system has many new and unique features. It is funded by the Revolutionary State and is based on the needs of the population rather than on financial solvency ratios. Medical and dental care is a constitutional right and patients are not charged for it. 

      It is impossible to think of human life and health without the care of a nursing professional.  Nursing is part of the health sciences and encompasses the care of people of all ages, families, groups and communities, being sick or not, and in all circumstances. They are always on the front line in any situation involving a struggle for life, whether it is the birth of a baby, the care of a sick or injured person, the terminal condition of a person, or even in preventive health care. 

      In Cuba, nurses play an essential role in the National Health System, since they provide their services at all levels of medical care. Their presence, for example, in primary health care enables to improve the functioning of services in all community clinics and polyclinics. 

      They usually form a great team with the family doctor, and are often a great support for recent graduates or medical students, who are nurtured by their experience and skills. Nurses are trained in the country’s universities of medical sciences, in several faculties and at the National Public Health School, thus seeking to ensure their presence at all three levels of care. 

      On the other hand, a large number of nurses are part of the Cuban healthcare professional brigades engaged in international missions in other countries and respond to the calls of brotherly peoples in need of medical attention. 

      The Cuban nursing staff is recognized for their scientific and technical preparation and their dedication to work in primary health care in each locality, in hospitals, in health promotion and prevention campaigns and in international work. 

      The world is currently facing a deadly and silent enemy. It is the SARS-CoV-2 virus, whose outbreak began in China in December 2019 and has already spread to 183 other countries, leaving almost four million people infected and more than 270,000 dead worldwide. In this context, our nurses have shown their compassion, courage and professionalism to face difficult situations. 

      The scientific and technical development of nursing professionals in Cuba has allowed them to reach higher levels in the understanding of values, based on the evaluation of each patient as a starting point for their treatment, considering them not as an object but as a subject. This concept implies that the person is deemed as the most necessary and active element to be taken into account. 

      Cuban nursing staff has always been characterized by a high level of response to different situations. Nurses graduated on the island have demonstrated their competence in the face of major health crises, showing their ability to act while maintaining high standards of professionalism. 

      When it comes to excellence in health, Cuban nursing staff is a paradigm, playing an essential role in building resilient health systems. Throughout the world, and without leaving aside other health services, they were on the front line of the battle against COVID-19 and have been the soul of vaccination to prevent this and other diseases. As a service profession, but also of many challenges, dedication and altruism, the work carried out by nurses is fundamental to promoting health, preventing disease and sustaining patient care. With their daily work, Cuban nursing staff faces every crisis situation both in Cuba and in the rest of the world. 

      The Largest Island of the Antilles is one of the countries with the biggest number of nurses in the world. In addition, they are qualified personnel, since most of them are specialists in emergency, community and maternal and child nursing. 

      They have centered their training on the basis of full integration to work. This premise aims to train professionals who respond to the present and future needs of the country’s development. The nursing specialty is based on the theoretical knowledge and practical skills of the profession, from a holistic and integrative conception of the social factors of health, which are applied in the work from the community, in order to promote, maintain and restore health. 

      Cuban nurses show their knowledge, judgments and technical skills and a series of attributes and attitudes in each treatment, in each patient. They are able to apply nursing procedures and protocols and at the same time, establish assertive interpersonal and interprofessional communication. 

      Cuban nursing has been a determining factor in the training of health brigades, vaccination campaigns, analysis of health situations, confronting population aging, combating epidemics and viral diseases, and international collaboration. 

      The Cuban nurses’ work has a social impact that lies in the fact that the technological development advances are used by this group of healthcare workers without losing the humanistic sense of the profession in the relationship with the patient, the family and all the personnel involved in the process. 

      The Cuban nursing has unavoidable duties, primarily related to providing professional care of quality and excellence, based on a system of knowledge and evidence guaranteeing the efficacy and efficiency of its practice. 

      Today Cuban nursing staff is a vanguard army, a symbol of love, hope and full consecration, as well as of high professionalism and ethics, which is recognized and loved by the whole world. 

      Lung carcinoma is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In lung cancer, the healthy cell that becomes the tumor cell is in the epithelium lining the entire respiratory tree from the trachea to the thinnest terminal bronchiole. Symptoms may include cough, chest discomfort or pain, weight loss and less frequently hemoptysis (coughing up blood). Depending on the stage of the disease, treatment consists of surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy or a combination of some of these modalities.

      Primary lung cancer is a cancer that originates from lung cells. It may start in the respiratory tracks that branch off from the trachea (windpipe) to ventilate the lungs (bronchi) or in the small air sacs of the lung (alveoli). Metastatic lung cancer is cancer that has spread from other parts of the body, most often from the breast, colon, prostate, kidneys, thyroid glands, stomach, cervix, rectum, testicles, bones or skin. Most patients do not see a doctor until they have the first symptoms and these vary depending on the stage of the disease. Diagnosis usually occurs because the tumor begins to interfere with nearby organs.


      The most important cause of lung cancer in about 85% of cases is smoking. The risk of lung cancer increases with combined exposure to toxins and smoking. Other risk factors include air pollution, marijuana use, exposure to carcinogens (asbestos, arsenic, nickel, chromates, among others). The risk of lung cancer associated with electronic nicotine delivery systems such as electronic cigarettes has not yet been determined, although it is believed that tobacco combustion products are the main carcinogens. Other causes also include genetic factors.

      Respiratory epithelial cells require prolonged exposure to cancer-promoting agents and the accumulation of multiple genetic mutations before becoming neoplastic.


      About 25% of lung cancer patients are asymptomatic and are detected mainly incidentally by chest x-ray. When symptoms begin to appear they are a consequence of the progression of the disease whether local, regional dissemination or metastasis. The manifestations of lung cancer generally depend on the stage of the disease. The initial stages are usually asymptomatic or with symptoms that can be confused with other diseases.

      The most frequent symptoms are:

      • Tiredness;
      • Loss of appetite;
      • Dry cough;
      • Coughing up blood;
      • Shortness of breath;
      • Pain in bone structures;
      • Other symptoms may arise from metastasis or invasion of tumor cells into the lymph nodes, bones, brain, liver and adrenal glands.

      Lung cancer is classified according to what type of cells make up the tumor:

      • Non-small cell lung cancer;
      • Small cell or microcytic lung cancer. This is a very aggressive cancer that grows and spreads very quickly.

      When the tumor is local it may cause cough and less frequently dyspnea due to respiratory track obstruction, post-obstructive atelectasis or pneumonia and parenchymal loss due to lymphangitic spread. In the case of pneumonia, it may present with fever. Some patients report vague or localized chest pain. Hemoptysis is less common, and blood loss is minimal, unless the tumor erodes into a major artery and causes massive hemorrhage, but as mentioned above hemoptysis only occurs in about 10% of patients.

      When tumor spread is regional it can cause pleuritic chest pain or dyspnea due to the development of pleural effusion; hoarseness, resulting from tumor invasion of the laryngeal nerve; and dyspnea and hypoxia due to diaphragmatic paralysis, due to involvement of the phrenic nerve.

      Over time metastases cause other symptoms that vary by location, metastases can spread to:

      • Liver: causes pain, nausea, early satiety and even liver failure;
      • Brain: causes behavioral changes, confusion, aphasia, seizures, paralysis, nausea and vomiting;
      • Bones: can cause severe pain and pathological fractures;
      • Adrenal glands: rarely with adrenal insufficiency.

      Diagnosis is made through:

      • Chest x-ray;
      • Positron emission tomography;
      • Cytopathologic examination of pleural fluid or sputum;
      • Bronchoscopy-guided biopsy and core needle biopsy;
      • Lung biopsy.

      To determine the treatment for lung cancer, the size and location of the tumor must be taken into account. Depending on this, there are different types of treatment, including surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy.


      In the case of lung cancer surgery, it involves the total or partial removal of the tumor from the lymph nodes near the thorax, depending on the type of intervention. There are three types of surgery: segmentectomy, lobectomy and pneumonectomy. The recovery period is several weeks or months.

      Radiotherapy consists of eliminating cancer cells by means of high-energy ionizing radiation, which can stop their growth and division. This type of therapy can produce, to a greater or lesser extent, a series of side effects such as tiredness, difficulty in swallowing, coughing and slight respiratory difficulty.

      Chemotherapy uses intravenous or oral drugs to destroy tumor cells. It is administered in cycles, alternating periods of treatment and rest. Depending on when it is administered, there are different types of chemotherapy. Chemotherapy drugs, like radiation therapy, can also damage healthy cells in the body.

      Cuba has carried out numerous studies on the subject and has a treatment for lung cancer with monoclonal antibodies, CIMAVAX EFG and VAXIRA. Both vaccines offer the possibility of converting advanced cancer into a controllable chronic disease for those patients who are eligible for treatment. The vaccine has shown encouraging results in terms of survival and improvement in the patient’s quality of life, in addition to having no adverse side effects.


      A hallucination is a false perception in the absence of a related sensory stimulus. Auditory hallucinations are a subjective, transient and extraordinarily varied mental phenomenon. In a simpler definition, it is a perception without object, where the patient perceives sounds without any real auditory stimulus.

      Auditory hallucinations do not constitute a disease in themselves, as they are symptoms of different clinical pictures that can occur in different pathologies and with different degrees of intensity.

      Auditory hallucinations can occur in childhood, adolescence and adulthood. Their environment of appearance can be determined by different causes.

      It is very difficult to associate this symptom to a specific psychopathology, since hallucinations are a phenomenon that presents great dispersion in terms of origin, development and variety; and although it is the most common type of hallucination in primary psychiatric diseases, the hallucinatory component is not limited to the field of psychosis (although it is the predominant pattern), but is present in different pathologies such as bipolar disorder, neurological and psychiatric diseases (related to psychotic disorders), consumption of drugs such as amphetamine and cocaine, diseases such as Alzheimer, Parkinson and others such as deafness, epilepsy or temporal lobe tumors. Therefore, their value as a specific diagnostic indicator is very limited a priori, since they can appear associated with very diverse diseases. It is important to note that auditory hallucinations secondary to non-psychiatric processes may be accompanied by delusional ideas, unlike primary ones, which may have false memories of which the patient is not aware, therefore, patient fervently believes in the veracity of the memory.

      Auditory hallucinations are more frequent in psychotic persons and can come in two forms: verbal, where the patient hears single words, phrases and speeches with an imperative or guilty nuance and non-verbal where the patient hears music, chimes, bells and unstructured noises. They occur with different levels of intensity, from very definite to very diffuse.

      Among the types of auditory hallucinations, the following stand out:

      • The patient hears a voice speaking in his/her minds.
      • The patient hears a voice or several voices arguing with each other.
      • The patient hears voices narrating his/her own actions.
      • The patient hears musical tones.
      • The patient hears loud noises.

      Hallucinations associated with schizophrenic and depressive psychoses are more elaborate in content and the “voices” heard are often threatening in content. The hallucination forms are different among psychiatric patients, especially those with schizophrenia, and in patients with neurological diseases or substance abuse.

      Stress must be taken into account when assessing the causes of auditory hallucinations, as it can be assumed to be the main triggering factor of hallucinatory phenomena. Studies carried out with healthy patients exposed to threatening situations or family losses indicate that it is very likely that they may experience hallucinations when there are stressful circumstances around them. Also, and in a very direct way, the abandonment of psychotropic drugs or the abuse of toxic substances can have a direct influence as triggers of hallucinatory phenomena.

      Sometimes auditory hallucinations occur in the absence of any detectable disease. Those with more dopamine (neurotransmitter present in various areas of the brain) are more susceptible to this impact and are more likely to perceive auditory stimuli. Often, patients relate the subjective experience of someone speaking to them and are emotionally negative. Conditions that cause damage to or interference with peripheral sensory pathways can produce auditory hallucinations; for example, acquired deafness is a common cause. Metabolic disorders related to the endocrine system, including thyroid function disorders and Hashimoto’s disease, can produce auditory hallucinations as well.

      Other associated medical conditions include chromosomal disorders such as Prader/Willi syndrome, autoimmune disorders, sleep disorders, tumors, epilepsy, and cardiovascular events where the activity involves the temporal, occipital or tempoparietal pathways.

      In relation to the origin and development of auditory hallucinations, research suggests or separates what would be antecedent or triggering factors. There are different aspects to take into account, for example, certain genetic predisposition that make the patient more vulnerable to suffer hallucinations, but that must be combined with certain circumstances that would function as triggering elements. Among the psychological factors that could be present in the origin of auditory hallucinations are personality aspects, stressful situations, reinforcement processes and even superstitious beliefs.


      As mentioned above, among the various vulnerability models for experiencing acoustic hallucinations, the person must be subjected to highly stressful situations and not possess sufficient resources to cope, feeling helpless or overwhelmed by the experience. Among the stressors are: divorce, job loss, death of family members, unfulfilled goals, childhood traumas and denial of emotions in certain scenarios, as well as isolation where the patient begins to hear voices to compensate for his lack of social interaction.

      In conclusion, hearing voices is not exclusively a mental disorder, as they can be experienced in organic diseases as well as in situations related to drug and alcohol consumption and even brain injuries resulting from accidents of any kind. Hallucinations can have a small intensity and become almost inaudible, or they can have a great intensity to the point that the patient cannot sleep or hear other people.

      Public Health Improvement: Strengthening Egyptian-Cuban Relations

      CAIRO – 18 April 2022: Minister of Higher Education and Scientific Research, as well as Acting Health Minister, Khaled Abdel Ghaffar, commended the depth and strength of Egyptian-Cuban relations. Recognizing the importance of collaboration, he emphasized the need to enhance cooperation between Egypt and Cuba in the fields of health and scientific research. The primary objective was to uplift healthcare services for the citizens of both countries, ensuring their well-being and advancement in the realm of public health

      Public health improvement.

      To explore new avenues of cooperation, Abdel Ghaffar held a meeting with the Cuban ambassador to Egypt, Tania Aguiar Fernandez. The discussion centered around various aspects of healthcare, aiming to identify innovative strategies for joint efforts. During this significant meeting, Abdel Ghaffar expressed his admiration for Cuba’s commendable expertise in medicine and public health. He acknowledged their distinguished healthcare system, widely recognized and respected worldwide. Egypt sought to benefit from this invaluable expertise whenever necessary, strengthening the bond between the two nations.

      The meeting shed light on means to promote cooperation in scientific research, with an emphasis on leveraging the talents and scientific expertise available in both countries. Collaboration through research institutions and centers was seen as a promising path to advance knowledge and improve healthcare services. Recognizing the importance of knowledge exchange, both sides stressed the significance of sharing scientific and professional expertise. Such collaboration would pave the way for mutual growth and progress.

      Moreover, the meeting addressed the idea of exchanging student missions from the faculties of medicine. This proposed exchange program aimed to foster cultural understanding and enable aspiring medical professionals to gain diverse experiences and perspectives. By fostering cooperation in education and training, both countries could contribute to producing well-rounded healthcare practitioners who are equipped to tackle the challenges of the future.

      Furthermore, the exchange of doctors between Egypt and Cuba was discussed as a means to ensure the best possible outcomes in healthcare delivery. By facilitating the sharing of medical expertise and knowledge, both countries could enhance their healthcare systems and provide improved services to their respective populations. This exchange program would create opportunities for doctors to broaden their horizons, gain new insights, and collaborate with colleagues from different backgrounds.

      Expressing gratitude, Ambassador Fernandez thanked Abdel Ghaffar for his dedication and commitment to cooperating with Cuba to enhance the fields of public health and scientific research. She affirmed her country’s keenness to work together with Egypt across various domains. This reaffirmation of mutual interest in collaboration highlighted the shared commitment to advancing healthcare and scientific knowledge for the benefit of both nations.

      In conclusion, the meeting between Minister Abdel Ghaffar and Ambassador Fernandez underscored the significance of public health improvement and scientific research cooperation between Egypt and Cuba. By capitalizing on each other’s strengths and expertise, both countries aimed to elevate healthcare services, strengthen research capabilities, and foster long-lasting partnerships. Through collaborative efforts, Egypt and Cuba envisioned a future where their citizens would enjoy improved healthcare and enhanced well-being.



      Read also: Made in Cuba Medicine

      CubaHeal in short words

      CubaHeal Medical is a global organization specialized in facilitating medical treatments, medical education, in addition to patient and student care in the Republic of Cuba. CubaHeal is a loyal supporter of the Republic of Cuba, the Cuban people, the Cuban revolution, and the Cuban revolutionary leadership.

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