Gynaecological Treatment Programs
The following is a list of gynaecological conditions and the treatment programs offered in Cuba for such conditions:
- Breast Nodules: affecting both men and women, nodules are lumps or masses that form in the breast tissue in any part of the breast and are usually benign. Nodules are removed through a small cut in the skin, if possible around the areola (the pigmented skin surrounding a nipple) or in the fold under the breast to minimize cosmetic effects. The removed tissue is then taken for biopsy to determine if it is cancerous or not.
- Uterine Myoma: also known as a fibroid, leiomyoma, leiomyomata, and fibromyoma, is a condition in which benign soft tissue tumours form within the muscle tissue of the uterus. Most women with uterine myoma do not experience symptoms, few, however, experience painful or excessive menstrual periods, at times leading to anaemia. Uterine Myoma may also cause lower back pain, pain during intercourse, and in very rare cases, it can lead to infertility. Myomectomy is the preferred method for the removal of uterine myoma. This surgical procedure allows the uterus to remain in place allowing women the ability to conceive. At times however a hysterectomy (the surgical removal of the uterus) may be necessary if other treatment options have not worked.
- Uterine Septum and Bicornuate Uterus: Both of these conditions are congenital malformation as the uterine cavity is developing. A bicornuate uterus is a heart shaped with a deep indentation at the top while a uterine septum is when the uterine cavity is divided by a septum (wall). Metroplasty, also known as uteroplasty or hysteroplasty, is a reconstructive plastic surgery procedure to the uterus is the most common method of choice for the surgical correction of both conditions.
- Pelvic Floor Disorders: Involves the dropping down (prolapse) of the bladder (cystocele), urethra (urethrocele), rectum (rectocele) and/or small bowel (enterocele) into the vaginal canal due to weakness in or damage to the tissue. Anterior and Posterior Colporrhaphy, a minimally invasive surgery is performed in order to restore organs to their normal position as well as to give support to and strengthen the tissues. Anterior refers to the tightening of the frontal wall of the vagina while posterior refers to the tightening of the back wall of the vagina.– Cystocele with Urinary Incontinence: The bladder herniates into the vagina coupled with bladder control problems. Anterior colporrhaphy and Kelly plication are performed in which the connective tissue between the vagina, the urethra and the floor of the bladder are stitched to form a support for the bladder.
– Genital Prolapse: Occurs when a part of the vaginal canal has dropped down into the opening of the vagina due to weakness and damage to the tissue in the pelvic floor. , Anterior colporrhaphy as well asVaginal cervical amputation (the removal of the neck, i.e. the cervix, of the uterus) are performed.
– Uterine prolapse: When the uterus drops down into the opening of the vagina due to weakness or damage to the tissue in the pelvic floor. The most common treatment method is Vaginal Hysterectomy in which the uterus is removed through the vagina.
- Bartholin’s gland cyst: Bartholin glands produce fluid secreted through the Bartholin ducts that moistens the outer vulva. When the ducts are blocked fluids build up forming a cyst known as Bartholin’s gland cyst. In most cases Surgical Excision of the cyst is the general procedure, however, if the cyst is too large then a Marsupialization may be required. This is a procedure in which the abscess wall is opened to allow drainage of the fluid. The abscess membrane is then stitched to the vaginal lining allowing new tissue to form and heal the wound.
- Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding (DUB): Abnormal uterine bleeding that has no recognizable general medical problems. The bleeding is unpredictable in that it may be excessive or light, frequent or random.Diagnostic Endometrial Curettage which involves the diagnosis of the endometrium (tissue lining the inner cavity of the uterus) using a curette is used to remove material by scraping the walls of the uterus.
- Paraovarian Cyst: Appear alongside the ovaries or the fallopian tubes. At times the cysts may tear, bleed or become infected. Laparoscopic Exeresis of the cyst is standard procedure for the treatment of this condition.
- Polycystic ovaries: Is a condition due to hormone imbalance with high androgen levels. For women who have not benefited from other options, laparoscopy may be recommended, especially if the woman is having difficulties in getting pregnant.
- Pelvic Endometriosis: Occurs when the endometrial tissue (the lining of the inner cavity of the uterus) appear on the outside of the uterus. Videolaparoscopy (a surgery with a small incision in the pelvis or abdomen with the aid of a camera), as well as Vaporization with Argon plasma, may be used for the treatment of this condition.
- Unilateral and Bilateral Hydrosalpinx: Is a condition in which one or both fallopian tubes are dilated with fluids due to blockage at the end of the tubes away from the uterus. Salpingectomy is the surgical removal of one (unilateral salpingectomy) or both (bilateral salpingectomy) fallopian tubes.
- Tubal Infertility: Is a condition in which the fallopian tubes are blocked or damaged hindering a fertilized or unfertilized ovum (the egg cell) from reaching the uterus. Treatment for this condition is by Videolaparoscopy with unilateral and bilateral Tubal Plasty Surgery.
- Previous Tubal Ligation: Reversal of what is commonly known as “tied tubes” and involves Contrasted Laparoscopy (a minimally invasive surgery in which a lighted tube is inserted through a small incision to diagnose problems in the abdomen and the female pelvic organ) as well as End To End Anastomosis whereby the remaining fallopian tube segments are reconnected.